A list of 132 bird species, observed in the area of interest from June 1998 to the present. This table lists bird species seen in Seymour township, 1998-2021. It includes all parts of the township, although the majority of sightings were made in the streets, parks and gardens of the town of Campbellford, in adjacent Ferris provincial park (east of the Trent river) and in the Trout Creek drainage immediately west of the town (accessed along the old railway line, which is now a segment of the Trans-Canada Trail network). Town location: 77°48'W, 44°17'N.
The bird list indicates sightings across Seymour township, and takes care to flag those made in the Crowe Bridge Conservation Area, Ferris Provincial Park, and Seymour Conservation Area, three principal local conservation sites (1998-2020). So, watch for the C, F and S flags in the "list" column, which will form a simple CHECK LIST. Currently includes all of 1998 to mid-June 2020, and casually updated to the present. Birds noted in 1998-2002, but not seen in the 3 areas since, are marked in red in the list column, e.g., F). At least 77 species, approaching 60% of the full township list, have been spotted in one or more of these three public areas, which exhibit diverse types of habitat.
Seymour township includes Campbellford town and a Z-shaped reach of the Trent river, over 30 km long, winding through rolling hills and ridges of glacial deposits. It incorporates:
The township boundaries run about 16° west of north and north of east, and the township is elongated along the N.N.W. axis, 19x16 km in size, total area roughly 304 km2. The south boundary runs along the Percy Reach of the river Trent, and includes a 2.4-km hiking trail between Percy Reach and Meyer's Lock (Locks 8 and 9). South of the Reach, in Brighton and Murray townships, is the 48.5 km2 Murray Marsh, the largest undisturbed area of marsh and swamp forest in southern Ontario. For the record, Seymour and Percy townships are now amalgamated in a larger municipal unit known as Trent Hills, area 511 km2. Politically, the area forms the northeast corner of the wedge-shaped Northumberland-Quinte West federal riding, a sprawling area of 2,652 km2 with 93,293 registered voters (October 2008).
Notes on the Observations
The list currently includes 133 species. The true total of species which live, breed or fly over the region in the course of a year is quite probably 200-250 or more, and it is possible that expert "birders" ("twitchers" in the U.K.) might find 100 species by criss-crossing the township on a single well-chosen day. The numbers of observations of a given species inevitably reflect our own routines and locations: were we to live on the main river, for instance, sightings of waterfowl, osprey and bald eagle would presumably be greatly increased. Owl and swift sightings would be enhanced by different locales and a more nocturnal lifestyle! At least 10 additional bird species reported in, or seen near, the township are mentioned in bold type below. These do not include the abundance of species seen at Presqu'ile park on Lake Ontario, a birding destination which, in abundance and diversity of species, is in the premier league of all Ontario!
The original bird observations summarized here are associated with notes on other aspects of natural history, such as local animals, trees, plants and fungi. Fresh topics may be profiled here as more information becomes available. Note that other species of birds, animals and vegetation certainly occur here, although we have yet to observe them personally (e.g., bald eagle (finally, soon after an adult was reported over the CBCA in February 2021, two immatures were seen right by Old Mill Park, on the Trent river, on 05 March 2021); snowy owl (?); barred owl; screech owl; and [in Ferris park] saw-whet owl; purple finch (eventually seen, e.g., Feb. 2016 and Sept. 2020!); wood duck and animals such as black bear and fisher, all seen by others in Seymour township in 2002-2008, and as recently as 2021). We have seen black bear just west, and moose not far north of our township, but not within the bounds of Seymour.
The main point is that there are birds and animals in this area, perhaps on a regular basis, that are not listed (yet) in these pages! From time to time, of course, a real rarity may show up, not to be recognized again for years - we recall the appearance on the Carman Road, halfway from here to Brighton, and some 20 years ago, of a pink-bellied Lewis's woodpecker, a species I've only ever seen where it "belongs", west of the Rockies (in my viewing, near Osoyoos, in southern British Columbia)!
We have also seen other birds both east and west of Seymour but not yet in the township, for example the bobolink. Back in Ferris park, scarlet tanagers were sighted on at least 2 occasions in spring and summer 2020, on the south flanks of the northern (drumlin) hill. Downstream toward Meyersburg, male and female northern pintail were reported in mid-November of that year. In March 2021 a male ring-necked pheasant, a widely-scattered Eurasian import, was seen by a driver west of the township, just east of Roseneath. I later heard of a pair of the pheasants on IXL Road, just north of Campbellford, and so this species joins the list! The grey jay (see below) is a fixture, not so far north from us, but again, not seen here in recent time. Any discrepancies in sightings reported here, relative to third-party reports, can be explained by several factors, such as: a) sporadic observations and absences; b) incomplete geographic or seasonal coverage of key areas of the township, particularly for some woodland species and water birds; and c) insufficient expertise in bird identification, particularly in terms of bird calls.
A short story
In late 2016, Canadian Geographic magazine announced that its preferred candidate for a Canadian National Bird was the grey jay. While the blue jay is well-known to almost everyone in southern Ontario, the grey jay has a wider distribution than its brash and noisy cousin, especially towards the north and west of Ontario. The grey jay occurs in at least part of every Canadian province and territory, and is at home foraging in the boreal forest, and across the Canadian shield. To date, I have not seen a grey jay in Seymour township. Since 1998, I have enjoyed seeing these smart and inquisitive birds on a dozen or more occasions to the north of Thunder Bay, on field trips to that region in 2006-2013, between October and April, and generally in the depths of winter. Closer to Campbellford, I recorded seeing 3 individuals at Petroglyphs park in Peterborough county on 01 September 2006, and two pairs in the same fine park, north of Upper Stony Lake, on 30 September 2000. The grey jay is also known as the Canada jay or whiskey-jack (gray jay, Perisoreus canadensis, geai gris, mésangeai du Canada, and sundry other names). On 14 February 2021, CBC Radio 1 broadcast (for the second time that winter) an article on the grey jay. The observation was that, due to the warming climate, food caches the jays make in tree cavities were decaying faster than normal, threatening the birds' food supply. The species may be forced to live further north to combat this threat. Canadian Geographic recently profiled the grey jay once more (Zarankin, 2021).
The Bird List and the Arrangement of the Data
Some of the information has been compiled for 79 of the 133 listed species, for anything from five to twenty-two complete calendar years from January 1999 to (at the maximum) early 2021. Two histograms for the blue jay appear below, to illustrate the ongoing gathering of data on each species. An even better example can be found in the pages on the slate-coloured junco. The latest compilations, updated to dates between 2013 and early 2021, started with the waxwings, hairy woodpecker and white-breasted nuthatch and feature 62 of the 79 species profiled to date. 47 of these are updated from 1998 through Q1-2021. These are in an updated presentation with the html text file linked to a spreadsheet file in .pdf format (the free Adobe Reader will open these), providing a more detailed view of the source data, and the latest histogram of bird occurrence. The data for these 62 species are derived from more than 11,700 observations on specific days over 14-22 calendar years.
You may access each entry by clicking on the underlined bird names in the table below. NOTE that the histograms record the number of days on which a particular species has been recorded in each month during the observation period, and not the number of individual birds seen! The list reflects the birds likely to be encountered on local dog walks and other casual outings: a focused birding expedition would probably detect other species.
Finally, should you find a feather that puzzles you, there is a web site showing photos of feathers of more than 400 North American bird species: The Feather Atlas of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
|English||Latin||French||Alternative Names||List||Common Loon 1998-2020||Gavia immer||Huart à collier||Plongeon huard||Horned Grebe 1998-2020||Podiceps auritus||Grèbe cornu||Pied-billed Grebe 1998-2020||Podilymbus podiceps||Grèbe bec||Water-witch, hell-diver|
|Double-crested Cormorant 1998-2020||Phalacrocorax auritus||Cormoran à aigrettes||CF|
|Great Blue Heron 1998-2021||Ardea herodias||Grand héron||CF|
|Black-crowned Night-Heron||Nycticorax nycticorax||Bihoreau à couronne noire|
|Little Blue Heron||Florida caerulea||Petit héron bleu||C|
|Green-backed Heron||Butorides striatus||Héron vert||Butorides virescens; Green heron|
|Mute Swan 1998-2021||Cygnus olor||Cygne muet||Cygne tuberculé|
|Snow Goose||Chen caerulescens||Oie des neiges||Blue goose; l'oie blanche|
|Canada Goose||Branta canadensis||Bernache canadienne||CFS|
|American Black Duck||Anas rubripes||Canard noir||Black Duck|
|Mallard 1998-2020||Anas platyrhynchos||Canard colvert||Canard malard||CFS|
|Gadwall||Anas strepera||Le canard chipeau|
|Blue-winged Teal||Anas discors||Sarcelle à ailes bleues|
|Common Goldeneye1998-2020||Bucephala clangula||Garrot à oeil d'or||Garrot commun, American goldeneye, Glaucionetta clangula americana (obsolete)||CF|
|Bufflehead 1998-2020||Bucephela albeola||Petit garrot||C|
|Hooded Merganser 1998-2020||Lophodytes cucullatus||Bec-scie couronné|
|Common Merganser 1998-2020||Mergus merganser||Grand bec-scie||Goosander, bec-scie commun||C|
|Red-breasted Merganser 1998-2020||Mergus serrator||Bec-scie à poitrine rousse|
|Turkey Vulture 1998-2021||Cathartes aura||Urubu à tête rouge||Vautour à tête rouge||CFS|
|Bald Eagle 1998-2021||Haliaeetus leucocephalus||L'aigle à tête blanche||Pygargue à tête blanche||C|
|Osprey 1999-2008||Pandion haliaetus||L'aigle pêcheur||Balbuzard||CFS|
|Northern Harrier||Circus cyaneus||Busard Saint-Martin||Marsh hawk|
|Sharp-shinned Hawk||Accipiter striatus||Épervier brun||F|
|Cooper's Hawk||Accipiter cooperii||Épervier de Cooper|
|Red-shouldered Hawk||Buteo lineatus||Buse à épaulettes rousses||F|
|Broad-winged Hawk||Buteo platypterus||Petite buse||F|
|Red-tailed Hawk 1999-2020||Buteo jamaicensis||Buse à queue rousse||F|
|Rough-legged Hawk||Buteo lagopus||La buse pattue||F|
|American Kestrel||Falco sparverius||Crécerelle américaine||Sparrow hawk||C|
|Merlin||Falco columbarius||Faucon émerillon||Pigeon hawk||C|
|Peregrine Falcon||Falco peregrinus||Faucon pèlerin||Duck hawk|
|Ruffed Grouse 1999-2013||Bonasa umbellus||Gelinotte huppée||CFS|
|Ring-necked Pheasant||Phasianus colchicus||Faisan à collier|
|Wild Turkey||Meleagris gallopavo||Dindon sauvage|
|Killdeer||Charadrius vociferus||Pluvier kildir||FS|
|Greater Yellowlegs 1998-2014||Tringa melanoleuca||Grand chevalier à pattes jaunes||Totanus melanoleucus (Gmelin)||F|
|Lesser Yellowlegs 1998-2014||Tringa flavipes||Petit chevalier à pattes jaunes||Totanus flavipes (Gmelin)||F|
|Spotted Sandpiper||Actitis macularia||Chevalier branle-queue||Maubèche branle-queue|
|Least Sandpiper||Calidris minutilla||Bécasseau minuscule||Erolia minutilla||F|
|Common Snipe||Capella gallinago||Bécassine ordinaire||Wilson's snipe|
|American Woodcock 1998-2020||Scolopax minor||Bécasse d'Amérique||Philohela minor; bogsucker; timberdoodle; bécasse américaine|
|Ring-billed Gull 1998-2013||Larus delawarensis||Goéland à bec cerclé||CF|
|Caspian Tern||Sterna caspia||Sterne caspienne||Hydroprogne caspia|
|Feral Pigeon||Columba livia||Pigeon biset||Rock dove; Domestic pigeon||CF|
|Mourning Dove 1998-2020||Zenaida macroura||Tourterelle triste||FS|
|Black-billed Cuckoo 1998-2014||Coccyzus erythropthalmus||Coulicou à bec noir|
|Great Horned Owl 1998-2021||Bubo virginianus||Grand-duc d'Amérique||S|
|Great Grey Owl 1998-2021||Strix nebulosa||La Chouette cendreé||S|
|Common Nighthawk||Chordeiles minor||Engoulevent d'Amérique||Engoulevent commun|
|Chimney Swift||Chaetura pelagica||Martinet ramoneur||F|
|Ruby-throated Hummingbird 1999-2013||Archilochus colubris||Colibri à gorge rubis|
|Belted Kingfisher 1998-2020||Ceryle alcyon||Martin-pêcheur||Megaceryle alcyon||CF|
|Red-headed Woodpecker||Melanerpes erythrocephalus||Pic à tête rouge|
|Red-bellied Woodpecker||Melanerpes carolinus||Pic à ventre rouge|
|Yellow-bellied Sapsucker||Sphyrapicus varius||Pic maculé|
|Downy Woodpecker 1999-2020||Picoides pubescens||Pic mineur||Dendrocopos pubescens||CF|
|Hairy Woodpecker 1999-2020||Picoides villosus||Pic chevelu||Dendrocopos villosus||CF|
|Northern Flicker 1998-2020||Colaptes auratus||Pic flamboyant||Yellow-shafted flicker; Pic doré||CFS|
|Pileated Woodpecker||Dryocopus pileatus||Grand pic||CFS|
|Eastern Wood-Pewee 1998-2013||Contopus virens||Pioui de l'Est||Eastern pewee||CFS|
|Least Flycatcher||Empidonax minimus||Moucherolle tchébec|
|Eastern Phoebe 1999-2013||Sayornis phoebe||Moucherolle phébi||CF|
|Great Crested Flycatcher||Myiarchus crinitus||Tyran huppé||Moucherolle huppé||CS|
|Eastern Kingbird||Tyrannus tyrannus||Tyran tritri||CF|
|Purple Martin||Progne subis||Hirondelle noire||Hirondelle pourprée|
|Tree Swallow||Tachycineta bicolor||Hirondelle bicolore||Iridoprocne bicolor||F|
|Bank Swallow||Riparia riparia||Hirondelle de rivage||Hirondelle des sables||F|
|Cliff Swallow||Hirundo pyrrhonota||Hirondelle à front blanc||Petrochelidon pyrrhonata||F|
|Barn Swallow||Hirundo rustica||Hirondelle des granges||F|
|Northern Rough-winged Swallow||Selgidopteryx serripennis||Hirondelle à ailes hérissées||Selgidopteryx ruficollis||C|
|Bohemian Waxwing 1999-2020||Bombycilla garrulus||Jaseur boréal||Jaseur de Bohême|
|Cedar Waxwing 1999-2020||Bombycilla cedrorum||Jaseur des cèdres||CFS|
|House Wren||Troglodytes aedon||Troglodyte familier|
|Grey Catbird||Dumetella carolinensis||Moqueur chat||Moqueur polyglotte||C|
|Brown Thrasher 1998-2013||Toxostoma rufum||Moqueur roux||FS|
|Eastern Bluebird||Sialia sialis||Merle-bleu de l'est||Merle bleu à poitrine rouge|
|Wood thrush||Hylocichla mustelina||Grive du bois|
|Veery||Catharus fuscescens||Grive fauve|
|American Robin 1998-2020||Turdus migratorius||Merle d'Amérique||Merle américain||CFS|
|Blue-grey Gnatcatcher||Polioptila caerulea||Gobe-mouches gris bleu|
|Golden-crowned Kinglet 1998-2020||Regulus satrapa||Roitelet à couronne dorée||FS|
|Ruby-crowned Kinglet 1998-2020||Regulus calendula||Roitelet à couronne rubis||F|
|Black-capped Chickadee||Parus atricapillus||Mésange à tête noire||CFS|
|Red-breasted Nuthatch 1998-2020||Sitta canadensis||Sittelle à poitrine rousse||F|
|White-breasted Nuthatch 1999-2020||Sitta carolinensis||Sittelle à poitrine blanche||CFS|
|Brown Creeper 1998-2014||Certhia americana||Grimpereau brun||Certhia familiaris americana||C|
|Northern Cardinal 1998-2020||Cardinalis cardinalis||Cardinal rouge||FS|
|Rose-breasted Grosbeak 1998-2020||Pheucticus ludovicianus||Cardinale à poitrine rose||Gros-bec à poitrine rose||S|
|Pine Grosbeak 1998-2020||Pinicola enucleator||Dur-bec des pins||Gros-bec des pins||F|
|Indigo Bunting||Passerina cyanea||Passerin indigo||Bruant indigo|
|Rufous-sided Towhee||Pipilo erythrophthalmus||Tohi à flancs roux||Tohi commun||FS|
|American Tree Sparrow 1998-2020||Spizella arborea||Bruant hudsonien||Tree sparrow; Pinson hudsonien||F|
|Chipping Sparrow 1998-2020||Spizella passerina||Bruant familier||Pinson familier, hair-bird||F|
|Field Sparrow||Spizella pusilla||Le pinson des champs|
|Song Sparrow 1998-2020||Melospiza melodia||Bruant chanteur||Pinson chanteur||FS|
|Vesper Sparrow||Pooecetes gramineus||Pinson vespéral||Bruant vespéral: seen 07 Oct., 2019|
|White-throated Sparrow 1998-2020||Zonotrichia albicollis||Bruant à gorge blanche||Pinson à gorge blanche||FS|
|White-crowned Sparrow||Zonotrichia leucophrys||Bruant à couronne blanche||Pinson à couronne blanche|
|Slate-coloured Junco 1998-2020||Junco hyemalis||Junco ardoisé||Dark-eyed junco; snowbird||FS|
|Snow Bunting||Plectrophenax nivalis||Bruant des neiges||Plectrophane des neiges||F|
|Nashville Warbler||Vermivora ruficapilla||Paruline à joues grises||Fauvette à joues grises|
|Yellow Warbler||Dendroica petechia||Paruline jaune||Fauvette jaune|
|Yellow-rumped Warbler||Dendroica coronata||Paruline à croupion jaune||Myrtle warbler; fauvette à croupion jaune||F|
|Parula Warbler||Parula americana||Fauvette parula|
|Black-and-white Warbler||Mniotilta varia||Fauvette noire et blanche|
|Black-throated Green Warbler||Dendroica virens||Paruline verte à gorge noire||Fauvette verte à gorge noire||F|
|American Redstart 1998-2014||Setophaga ruticilla||Paruline flamboyante||Fauvette flamboyante||S|
|Chestnut-sided Warbler 1998-2020||Dendroica pensylvanica||Fauvette à flancs marron|
|Mourning Warbler||Oporornis philadelphia||Fauvette triste|
|Common Yellowthroat 1998-2020||Geothlypis trichas||Paruline masquée||Fauvette masquée||S|
|Warbling Vireo 1998-2014||Vireo gilvus||Viréo mélodieux||F|
|Philadelphia Vireo 1998-2014||Vireo philadelphicus||Viréo de Philadelphie|
|Red-eyed Vireo 1998-2014||Vireo olivaceus||Viréo aux yeux rouges||CF|
|Blue-headed Vireo||Vireo solitarius||Viréo à tête bleue||Solitary vireo (old name, pre-2000)|
|Red-winged Blackbird||Agelaius phoeniceus||Carouge à épaulettes||S|
|Eastern Meadowlark 1998-2020||Sturnella magna||Sturnelle des prés||S|
|Rusty Blackbird||Euphagus carolinus||Mainate rouilleux|
|Common Grackle 1998-2020||Quiscalus quiscula||Mainate bronzé||Bronzed grackle||CFS|
|Brown-headed Cowbird 1998-2020||Molothrus ater||Vacher à tête brune||F|
|Purple Finch||Carpodacus purpureus||Roselin pourpré|
|House Finch 1998-2013||Carpodacus mexicanus||Roselin familier|
|White-winged Crossbill||Loxia leucoptera||Bec-croise à ailes blanches||S|
|Common Redpoll 1998-2020||Carduelis flammea||Sizerin à tête rouge||Acanthis flammea; sizerin flammé|
|Pine Siskin||Carduelis pinus||Chardonneret des pins|
|American Goldfinch||Carduelis tristis||Chardonneret jaune||Spinus tristis||CFS|
|House Sparrow||Passer domesticus||Moineau domestique||English sparrow|
|European Starling||Sturnus vulgaris||Étourneau sansonnet||CFS|
|Northern Oriole||Icterus galbula||Oriole du Nord||Baltimore oriole||F|
|Blue Jay 1999-2007||Cyanocitta cristata||Geai bleu||CFS|
|American Crow 1998-2020||Corvus brachyrhynchos||Corneille américaine||Common crow||CFS|
|Common Raven 1998-2020||Corvus corax||Grand corbeau||Northern raven|
|English||Latin||French||Alternative Names||List||Northern Pintail||Anas acuta||Canard pilet||Common pintail||Wood Duck||Aix sponsa||Canard huppé||Common Screech Owl 1998-2020||Otus asio||Petit duc||Eastern screech owl||Barred Owl 1998-2020||Strix varia||Chouette rayeé||Snowy Owl 1998-2020||Nyctea scandiaca||Harfang des neiges||Saw-whet Owl 1998-2020||Aegolius acadicus||Petite nyctale||Northern saw-whet owl||F||Grey Jay||Perisoreus canadensis||Geai gris||Canada jay, whisky jack||Bobolink||Dolichonyx oryzivorus||Goglu||Scarlet Tanager||Piranga olivacea||Tangara écarlate||F|
Why these notes? How about the dictionary definition of phenology? I finally encountered the term via the Woodland Trust (U.K.) at Christmas 2001, and found out that it was a practice I'd adopted and maintained continuously, in an amateur capacity, since 1970...
Phenology, the study of natural phenomena that recur periodically, as migration, blossoming, etc, and of their relation to climate and changes in season.
For a monthly almanac of the year in nearby Peterborough county, with details on the changing weather, night skies, birds and animals, see a fine recent book by Drew Monkman, illustrated by Kimberly Caldwell (Monkman, 2002).
The following professional sources of bird information are especially recommended. LaForest (1993) details the year-round occurrence of birds at Presqu'ile provincial park, on the north shore of Lake Ontario, roughly 40 km south of Campbellford. Sadler (1983) wrote another excellent local reference, detailing the birds of Peterborough county, lying immemdiately north and northwest of Campbellford. A few notes on the wider region can be found in Goodwin (1995). For information on birds across Canada, see Godfrey (1979).
For an authoritative view of a particular species in the region, or anywhere else in southern Ontario, see Cadman et al. (1987, 2007), who compiled data from thousands of observers across the province, in two periods 1981-1985 and 2001-2005. Seymour township, apart from small areas in the northeast and northwest corners, comprises the majority of four 10-km squares in the Ontario Atlas. The 2x2 area of squares is approximately divided east-west by the first southward reach of the Trent downstream of Rice Lake, as seen on the atlas index maps. Two squares on the north side cover the area from Allan Mills west to the hamlet of Trent River, while a seventh square to the west covers the small area upstream (southwest) from Trent River. The geography of the area is covered in detail by NTS 1:50,000-scale map sheets 31 C/5 (Campbellford) and 31 C/4 (which includes the southwest corner of the township). Lastly, see Austen et al. (1994) for an informative review of the history and recent status of 58 species of birds across Ontario.
A short history of birdwatching in Ontario has recently been published by long-term birder Fred Helleiner. Nowadays a Brighton resident, nearby Presqu'ile Park is inevitably one of his favourite haunts. This is an interesting read for birders, though as much concerned with the people as with the subject of their passion (Helleiner, 2013).Geological note: Helleiner's book mentions geologists Jack Satterley (pp.17,31) and Ian Halladay (pp.26,34). Satterley is credited with the 1940s invention of "pishing", a rapid repetition of syllables which often succeeds in attracting the curiosity of small birds, and which is a mainstay of keen North American birders. Jack Satterley was a geologist with the Ontario Department of Mines (now the Ontario Geological Survey). He did a range of work in Ontario, including a 1942 survey of mineral occurrences in the Parry Sound district. The Jack Satterley geochronology lab, which began at the Royal Ontario Museum and is now at the University of Toronto, is named in his honour.
AUSTEN,MJW, CADMAN,MD and JAMES,RD (1994) Ontario Birds at Risk: Status and Conservation Needs. Federation of Ontario Naturalists / Long Point Bird Observatory, 165pp.
BURRELL,K and BURRELL,M (2019) Best Places to Bird in Ontario. Greystone Books, 278pp.
CADMAN,MD, EAGLES,PFJ and HELLEINER,FM (1987) Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Ontario. Federation of Ontario Naturalists and Long Point Bird Observatory, published by University of Waterloo Press, 617pp.
CADMAN,MD, SUTHERLAND,DA, BECK,GG, LEPAGE,D and COUTURIER,AR (editors) (2007) Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Ontario, 2001-2005. Bird Studies Canada,Environment Canada,Ontario Field Ornithologists, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, and Ontario Nature, 706pp.
GODFREY,WE (1979) The Birds of Canada. National Museums of Canada, Ottawa, 428pp.
GOODWIN,CE (1995) A Bird-Finding Guide to Ontario, revised and expanded edition, University of Toronto Press, 477pp. [Peterborough, Victoria and Northumberland counties are described (pp.208-225) and a few local sites mentioned, such as the Murray Marsh and Goodrich Loomis conservation area].
HELLEINER,F (2013) For the Birds: Recollections and Rambles. Brighton, Ontario, 2nd printing, revised, 71pp.
LaFOREST,SM (1993) Birds of Presqu'ile Provincial Park. Friends of Presqu'ile Park / Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, 436pp.
MONKMAN,D (2002) Nature's Year in the Kawarthas: a Guide to the Unfolding Seasons. Natural Heritage / Natural History Inc., Toronto, 338pp.
SADLER,D (1983) Our Heritage of Birds: Peterborough County in the Kawarthas. Peterborough Field Naturalists / Orchid Press, Peterborough, ON, 192pp.
TOZER,R (2011) Checklist and seasonal status of the birds of Algonquin provincial park. Algonquin Park Tech.Bull. 9, 34pp. [ first printed in 1990, updated and reprinted five times since].
ZARANKIN,J (2021) O Canada jay! Canadian Geographic 141 no.2, 34-39, March.
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