Turnstone Geological Services Ltd

Rock of the Month Index

Here is an alphabetical contents list, for R.O.M. 1-230 (July 2001 to August 2020).
The index is hierarchical, in that many of the items are organized into classes of rocks, mineral families, meteorites, etc.
The index needs to be extended, but already you can go straight to various mineral classes and species, elements, meteorites, fossils, tektites, fulgurites, granitoid rocks, slags, etc. For the mineralogically- inclined, non-silicates are organized chemically (Dana) and silicates structurally (DHZ).

You can also see the full listing of the Rock of the Month feature in chronological order, or

There is also a list of all the Meteorite-related Entries on the web site, though all the meteorites "of the month" are also listed below.

Classification of Sample Descriptions available on this Site


Class/Group/Family Topics
The "Rock of the Month"with select "Museum Moments" (MM)
Acasta gneiss --- #212 --- Oldest rock known on Earth, Northwest Territories, Canada
Adamellite --- #29 --- Shap granite, Lake District, England
Agalmatolite --- #203 --- Qingtian stone, superb lapidary material from China
Agrellite - Na Ca F --- #94 --- Agrellite and eudialyte, Kipawa, Quebec
Airfall deposits --- #159 --- Lapilli tuff / cherty sediment of Sudbury impact event, central Ontario
Airfall deposits --- #213 --- Impact ejecta, Thunder Bay, Ontario
Allivalite (troctolite) --- #31 --- Allivalite, Rhum, Scotland
Altaite - Pb Te --- #67 --- Rucklidgeite, rare telluride, N.E. Ontario
Amazonite feldspar --- ---- --- See "tectosilicates - feldspars"
Amethyst - Si --- ---- --- See "tectosilicates - silica"
Amethyst - Si --- #206 --- Quartz as semi-precious stone, with amethyst
Ammonites --- ---- --- See "fossils" section
Amphiboles --- #147 --- Andesite lava from Poas volcano, at Bosque de Paz, Costa Rica
Amphiboles - arfvedsonite --- #138 --- Eudialyte syenite from Kipawa, Quebec (MM02)
Amphiboles - hornblende --- #52 --- Titaniferous metagabbro, Norway
Amphiboles - hornblende --- #65 --- Odegaardite, metagabbro from Norway
Amphiboles --- #70 --- Nephrite jade from northern British Columbia
Amphiboles - hornblende in metagabbro --- #149 --- Grenville metagabbro from Cordova (gold) Mines, Ontario
Amphiboles --- #166 --- Unusual amphibole from the Grenville province, Ontario
Amphiboles --- #215 --- Manganoan tremolite ("hexagonite") from Balmat, New York
Andalusite --- #128 --- Chiastolite-muscovite schist pebble, Newfoundland
Andesite --- #147 --- Andesite lava from Poas volcano, at Bosque de Paz, Costa Rica
Andesite --- #62 --- Mineralized andesite, Guanajuato, Mexico
Andesite --- ---- --- See "volcanics"
Anorthosites --- #50 --- Calcic anorthosite, northern Ontario
Anorthosites --- #191 --- Keweenawan Mellen gabbro / gabbroic anorthosite, northern Wisconsin, U.S.A.
Anthraxolite --- #64 --- Anthraxolite hydrocarbon, Sudbury, Ontario
Antimonides - Ni Sb --- #184--- Breithauptite, nickel antimonide, from Cobalt, Ontario
Antimonides - Pt Sb --- #15 --- Cabriite (a palladium mineral) from Noril'sk, Russia
Apatite --- #1 ---- Apatite & orange calcite from Renfrew County, Grenville province, Ontario
Apatite --- #2 ---- Apatite & biotite from the Bancroft area, Grenville province, Ontario
Apatite --- #107 --- Apatite and phlogopite, Palabora, South Africa
Aplite --- #202 --- Tourmaline and lepidolite in aplite from southern California, U.S.A.
Apophyllite --- #134 --- Apophyllite from northern San Luis Potosi, Mexico (MM01)
Apophyllite --- #142 --- Zeolites and apophyllite from Pune (Poona), Maharashtra, India
Appinite --- #32 --- Appinite, Strontian area, Scotland
Archaeology - chert - stone tools --- #24 --- Chert provenance (Pennsylvania, U.S.A.)
Archaeology - chert (flint) --- #34 --- Flint walls, Essex, England
Archaeology - chert (flint) - stone tools --- #79 --- Fractured flint from Essex, England
Archaeology - mapping in support of --- #114 --- Peperite identified in outcrop in Tigrai, Ethiopia
Archaeology - native copper - Cu --- #106 --- Native copper and datolite, northern Michigan, U.S.A
Archaeology - native copper - Cu --- #143 --- Native "float copper" from Houghton county, Michigan, U.S.A. (MM05)
Archaeology - goldsmithing - Au --- #223 --- Early Irish goldsmithing tools
Archaeology - jade --- #207 --- Massive jade as decorative piece, from China
Archaeology - jadeitite - stone tools --- #224 --- Irish stone tools made from Italian jadeitite
Archaeology - lunulae - Au --- #223 --- Early Irish goldsmithing - jewellery
Archaeology - Qingtian stone --- #203 --- Qingtian stone, superb lapidary material from China
Archaeology - tin - cassiterite - Sn --- #209 --- Rich cassiterite tin ore, Cornwall, England
Arfvedsonite (amphibole) --- #138 --- Eudialyte syenite from Kipawa, Quebec (MM02)
Arsenates - Co As --- #133 --- Erythrite from Bou Azzer, Morocco
Arsenates - Pb As --- #132 --- Mimetite, cerussite, sphaerocobaltite, Morocco
Arsenates - Pb As --- #195 --- Smithsonite from Tsumeb, Namibia
Arsenides - Co Ni As --- #40 --- Cobalt-nickel arsenide ore, Cobalt district, Ontario
Arsenides - Pt As --- #81 --- Sperrylite, Sudbury, Ontario
Arsenides - Pt As --- #81b -- Sperrylite, Sudbury, Ontario (.pdf, 138 kb)
Arsenopyrite - Fe As --- #153 --- Gold skarn with arsenopyrite, Osoyoos, southern Okanagan, British Columbia
Arsenopyrite - Fe As --- #8 ---- Berthierite, Iron-antimony sulphide from Borneo
Arsenopyrite - Fe As --- #152 --- Quartz-wolframite vein with arsenopyrite, Cligga Head, Cornwall, England
Australites (tektites) --- #55 --- Tektites from China
Australites (tektites) --- #156 --- Historic "soccer ball" tektite from the Philippines
Azurite - Cu --- #87 --- Azurite from Spain
Banded iron formation - BIF --- #88 --- Banded iron formation, Western Australia
Banded iron formation - BIF --- #98 --- Banded iron formation, south India
Barite - Ba S --- #228 --- Barite on quartz, Jiangxi, China
Basalt --- ---- --- See "volcanics"
Berthierite - Fe Sb --- #8 ---- Berthierite, Iron-antimony sulphide from Borneo
Beryl - Be --- #186--- Prismatic beryl from China
Bikolite (philippinite) tektite --- #156 --- Historic "soccer ball" tektite from the Philippines, and others
Bivalves --- ---- --- See "fossils" section
Borosilicates - B --- #106 --- Native copper and datolite, northern Michigan, U.S.A
Borosilicates - B --- #69 --- Dumortierite from Chile
Borosilicates - B --- #120 --- Tourmalinite from Botallack, Cornwall, England
Borosilicates - B --- #100 --- Pegmatitic granite, Tregonning-Godolphin stock, Cornwall, England
Borosilicates - B --- #101 --- Tourmaline-rich granitic breccia, Wheal Remfry, Cornwall, England
Borosilicates - B --- #202 --- Tourmaline and lepidolite from southern California, U.S.A.
Bournonite - Cu Pb Sb --- #96 --- Bournonite from Pulacayo, Bolivia
Breccias - chert in iron formation --- #89 --- Brecciated chert, Western Australia
Breccias - stony meteorite --- #83 --- NWA 869 brecciated chondrite meteorite, Morocco
Breccias - stony meteorite --- #216 --- Saricicek howardite (Vestan achondrite) meteorite
Breccias - stony-iron meteorite --- #127 --- Seymchan pallasite / iron meteorite, Siberia
Breccias - impact --- #213 --- Impact ejecta, breccias and ore, Thunder Bay and Sudbury, Ontario
Breccias - tourmaline breccia pipe --- #101 --- Tourmaline-rich granitic breccia, Wheal Remfry, Cornwall, England
Breithauptite - Ni Sb --- #184--- Breithauptite, nickel antimonide, from Cobalt, Ontario
Brucite - Mg --- #112 --- Brucite ophicalcite (marble) from Skye, Scotland
Bryozoans --- ---- --- See "fossils" section
Bytownite feldspar --- #50 --- Calcic anorthosite, northern Ontario
Cabriite - Cu Sn Pd --- #15 --- Cabriite (a palladium mineral) from Noril'sk, Russia
Calaverite - Au Ag Te --- #158 --- Gold-silver tellurides, Colorado, U.S.A., I
Calaverite - Au Ag Te --- #161 --- Gold-silver tellurides, Colorado, U.S.A., II
Calcite --- ---- --- See "carbonates"
Camerina --- #226 --- Camerina, Eocene fossil nummulite foraminiferan, Java, Indonesia
Carbonado - C --- #26 --- Diamond and carbonado, Siberia & Africa
Carbonates - Ca --- #85 --- Calcite from Zacatecas, Mexico
Carbonates - Ca --- #122 --- Calcite, Grenville province, Ontario
Carbonates - Ca --- #1 ---- Apatite & orange calcite from Renfrew County, Grenville province, Ontario
Carbonates - Ca (pink calcite) --- #126 --- Native silver in vein, Silver Islet, Thunder Bay area, Ontario
Carbonates - Ca --- #198 --- Calcite in fluorescent zinc ore, New Jersey, U.S.A.
Carbonates - Ca (with amphibole) --- #166 --- Unusual amphibole from the Grenville province, Ontario
Carbonates - Co --- #132 --- Mimetite, cerussite,sphaerocobaltite, Morocco
Carbonates - Cu --- #87 --- Azurite from Spain
Carbonates - Zn --- #195 --- Smithsonite from Tsumeb, Namibia
Carbonates - Pb --- #132 --- Mimetite, cerussite, sphaerocobaltite, Morocco
Carbonates - Mn --- #157 --- Manganese ores, Kalahari manganese field, South Africa
Carbonatite --- #107 --- Apatite and phlogopite, Palabora, South Africa
Cassiterite - Sn --- #209 --- Rich cassiterite tin ore, Cornwall, England
Cephalopods --- ---- --- See "fossils" section
Cerussite - Pb --- #132 --- Mimetite, cerussite,sphaerocobaltite, Morocco
Chabazite --- #142 --- Zeolites and apophyllite from Pune (Poona), Maharashtra, India
Chalcopyrite - Cu --- #115 --- Chalcopyrite ore, McCreedy West mine, Sudbury, Ontario
Chalcopyrite - Cu --- #213 --- Impact ejecta, and chalcopyrite ore, McCreedy West mine, Sudbury, Ontario
Chalcopyrite - Cu --- #190 --- Sudbury copper-PGE ore, Broken Hammer deposit
Chalcopyrite - Cu --- #171 --- Germanite in Cu Ge (Zn) ore, Tsumeb, Namibia
Chalcopyrite - Cu --- #148 --- Silica-flooded sulphidic ore, Mineral de Pozos, Guanajuato, Mexico
Charnockite --- #68 --- Sulphidic charnockite, Kodaikanal, south India
Charnockite --- #9 ---- Charnockite, a deep and meaningful granitoid rock, Baffin Island, Nunavut
Chemical sediments --- ---- --- See, e.g., "chert", "banded iron formation"
Chert - Si --- ---- --- See also "tectosilicates - silica" for other forms
Chert - Si --- #16 --- Chert & chalcedony (Pennsylvania, U.S.A.)
Chert - Si --- #23 --- Chert & microfossils (Pennsylvania, U.S.A.)
Chert - Si --- #24 --- Chert provenance (Pennsylvania, U.S.A.)
Chert - Si --- #76 --- Chert from the Crowe valley, S.E. Ontario
Chert (flint) - Si --- #34 --- Flint walls, Essex, England
Chert (flint) - Si --- #79 --- Fractured flint from Essex, England
Chert in iron formation - Si --- #89 --- Brecciated chert, Western Australia
Chiastolite (andalusite) --- #128 --- Chiastolite-muscovite schist pebble, Newfoundland
Chondrules in meteorites --- #49 --- Moorabie L3.8 chondrite, a meteorite from N.S.W., Australia
Chromates - Pb Cr --- #109 --- Crocoite from Tasmania, Australia
Chrome diopside --- #125 --- Chrome diopside, Russia
Chrome diopside --- #197 --- Chrome diopside in lodranite meteorite NWA 11129, Morocco
Chromite (Cr spinel) --- #60 --- UG-2 chromitite, Bushveld complex, South Africa
Chromite - Cr --- #220 --- South African chromites (Bushveld UG-2 chromitite, II)
Chromite - Cr --- #205 --- Chromitite, Luobusa ophiolite, southern Tibet
Chromite in meteorites --- #154 --- Chromite as accessory in L4 chondrite (NWA 12807)
Chrysanthemum stone --- #178 --- Glomeroporphyritic amphibolitic diorite porphyry from China
Chrysocolla - Cu --- #45 --- Chrysocolla from Wyoming, U.S.A.
Cinnabar - Hg --- #4 ---- Cinnabar, mercury ore from Almaden, Spain
Citrine - Si --- #206 --- Quartz as semi-precious stone: nine faceted examples
Clay minerals --- #203 --- Qingtian stone, superb lapidary material from China
Concretions - weathered out --- #74 --- Siltstone cobble, Slate Islands, N.W. Ontario
Concretions - unusual sandstone --- #84 --- Concretion, northwest Ontario
Concretions - pyrite in shale --- #172 --- Pyrite sun (concretion), Illinois, U.S.A. >
Conglomerate --- #72 --- Palaeobeach with igneous pebbles, Cuba
Copper - Cu --- #143 --- Native "float copper" from Houghton county, Michigan, U.S.A. (MM05)
Copper - Cu --- #106 --- Native copper and datolite, northern Michigan, U.S.A
Coquina - limestone --- #208 --- Shelly Ordovician limestone, Campbellford, southeast Ontario
Cordierite --- #43 --- Khondalite from Kerala, south India
Corundum --- ---- --- See "oxides - Al"
Covellite - Cu --- #171 --- Trace secondary mineral in Cu Ge ore, Tsumeb, Namibia
Crinoids --- ---- --- See "fossils" section
Crocoite - Pb Cr --- #109 --- Crocoite from Tasmania, Australia
Crystal habit - example of galena --- #214 --- Galena crystal habits, Huanzala, Peru & Madan, Bulgaria
Crystal habit - skeletal habit --- #176 --- Slag from the Durango mining district, Colorado, U.S.A.
Cumulates --- #31 --- Allivalite, Rhum, Scotland
Cyclosilicates - B --- #120 --- Tourmalinite from Botallack, Cornwall, England
Cyclosilicates - B --- #100 --- Pegmatitic granite from Cornwall, England
Cyclosilicates - B --- #101 --- Tourmaline-rich granitic breccia from Cornwall, England
Cyclosilicates - cordierite --- #43 --- Khondalite from Kerala, south India
Cyclosilicates - B --- #69 --- Dumortierite from Chile
Cyclosilicates - Zr --- #138 --- Eudialyte syenite from Kipawa, Quebec (MM02)
Cyclosilicates - Be --- #186--- Prismatic beryl from China
Cylindrite - Pb Sn Sb --- #33 --- Cylindrite from Bolivia
Datolite - B --- #106 --- Native copper and datolite, northern Michigan, U.S.A
Diabase --- #17-18 Double take: igneous rocks from Earth & space
Diabase --- #126 --- Native silver in vein, Silver Islet, Thunder Bay area, Ontario
Diamond - C --- #25 --- Diamonds from Africa
Diamond - C --- #26 --- Diamond and carbonado, Siberia & Africa
Diamond, chromitite host - C --- #205 --- Chromitite, Luobusa ophiolite, Tibet (no illustration)
Dickite --- #203 --- Qingtian stone, superb lapidary material from China
Dimension stone --- #169 --- Leucogranite textures and mineralogy
Dimension stone --- #179 --- Textures in a rapakivi granite from Beijing, China
Dimension stone --- #211 --- Tyndall stone, trace fossils, Ordovician limestone, Manitoba
Diopside --- ---- --- See "chrome diopside" or "inosilicates"
Diorites --- #32 --- Appinite, Strontian area, Scotland
Diorites --- #39 --- A Young plutonic rock from Borneo
Diorites --- #178 --- Glomeroporphyritic amphibolitic diorite porphyry from China
Dolostone - tempestite --- #219 --- Tempestite - Jixian dolostone, Tianjin, China
Dumortierite - B --- #69 --- Dumortierite from Chile
Dunite --- #155 --- Dunitic mantle xenolith from Mount Leura, western Victoria, Australia
Echinoderms --- ---- --- See "fossils" section
Echinoids --- ---- --- See "fossils" section
Elbaite - B --- #202 --- Tourmaline and lepidolite from southern California, U.S.A.
Epidote --- #50 --- Calcic anorthosite, northern Ontario
Erythrite - Co As --- #133 --- Erythrite from Bou Azzer, Morocco
Eudialyte - Zr --- #138 --- Eudialyte syenite from Kipawa, Quebec (MM02)
Eudialyte - Zr --- #94 --- Agrellite and eudialyte, Kipawa, Quebec
Exhalites --- ---- --- See "chemical sediments", e.g., "banded iron formation"
Feldspars --- ---- --- See "tectosilicates - feldspars", "anorthosites", etc
Ferrosilicon - Fe Si --- #44 --- Silicides in fulgurite and ferrosilicon
Flint - Si --- ---- --- See "chert"
Fluorite - Ca F --- #140 --- Blue John fluorite, Derbyshire, England (MM03)
Fluorescence - scapolite --- #90 --- Scapolite from Quebec
Fluororichterite --- #166 --- Unusual amphibole from the Grenville province, Ontario
Foraminifera ("forams") --- ---- --- See "fossils" section
Fossils - arthropoda - trilobites --- #185 --- The trilobite Phacops from the Devonian of Morocco
Fossils - bryozoans --- #11 --- Fossil bryozoan from southern Ontario
Fossils - echinoderms - crinoids --- #181 --- Traumatocrinus from the Triassic of Guizhou, China
Fossils - echinoderms - crinoids --- #208 --- Shelly Ordovician limestone, Campbellford, southeast Ontario
Fossils - echinoderms - echinoids --- #218 --- Echinoids from the Eocene Ocala limestone, Florida, U.S.A.
Fossils - echinoderms - ophiuroids --- #168 --- Echinodermata and the lithographic stone of Solnhofen, Germany
Fossils - foraminifera --- #226 --- Camerina, Eocene fossil nummulite foraminiferan, Java, Indonesia
Fossils - graptolites --- #111 --- Graptolite fossils from Dyfed, Wales
Fossils - mollusca - bivalves --- #141 --- Bivalve fossils from Iceland
Fossils - mollusca - bivalves --- #183 --- The bivalve Glycimeris in the Pliocene Red Crag of Essex, England
Fossils - mollusca - cephalopods --- #139 --- Fossil "surprise" cephalopods from Nepal
Fossils - mollusca - cephalopods --- #163 --- Mesozoic ammonite fossil, Madagascar
Fossils - mollusca - gastropods --- #189 --- Gastropods old and new
Fossils - thanatocoenosis --- #208 --- Shelly Ordovician limestone, Campbellford, southeast Ontario
Fossils - trace fossils --- #187 --- Thalassinoides, burrow, trace fossil from lower Chalk of Norfolk, England
Fossils - trace fossils --- #211 --- Tyndall stone, trace fossils, Ordovician limestone, Manitoba
Fossils - vertebrate --- #229 --- Keichousaurus, Triassic fossil reptile, China
Fossils - vertebrate --- #201 --- Mesosaurus, fossil reptile and mascot for Gondwanaland
Franklinite - Zn Fe Mn --- #198 --- Franklinite in fluorescent zinc ore, New Jersey, U.S.A.
Fuchsite - Cr green mica --- #35 --- Green mica in gold ore, Western Australia
Fulgurites --- #37 --- Fulgurite from Ontario
Fulgurites --- #44 --- Silicides in fulgurite and ferrosilicon
Fulgurites --- #123 --- Fulgurite, Grant county, Nebraska, U.S.A.
Fulgurites --- #124 --- Fulgurite, Florence, Arizona, U.S.A.
Fulgurites --- #124 --- Fulgurite, Oswego, New York, U.S.A.
Gabbro --- --- --- see also "metagabbro", "troctolite"
Gabbro --- #191 --- Keweenawan Mellen gabbro / gabbroic anorthosite, northern Wisconsin, U.S.A.
Galena - Pb --- #48 --- Zinc-lead vein from the Grenville province of S.E. Ontario
Galena - Pb --- #148 --- Silica-flooded sulphidic ore, Mineral de Pozos, Guanajuato, Mexico
Galena - Pb (with tellurides) --- #67 --- Rucklidgeite, rare telluride, N.E. Ontario
Galena - Pb (with PGM) --- #15 --- Cabriite (a palladium mineral) from Noril'sk, Russia
Galena - Pb (Ag) --- #175 --- "Zebra rock", a lead-zinc-silver ore from Colorado, U.S.A.
Galena - Pb --- #196 --- Unusual galena habit from Madan, Bulgaria
Galena - Pb --- #200 --- Galena crystal habits, Viburnum Trend, Missouri and Keno Hill, Yukon
Galena - Pb --- #214 --- Galena crystal habits, Huanzala, Peru & Madan, Bulgaria
Gallite - Ga --- #171 --- Germanite in Cu Ge ore, Tsumeb, Namibia
Garnet - metasediments --- #43 --- Khondalite from Kerala, south India
Garnet - leucogranite --- #169 --- Leucogranite textures and mineralogy
Garnet - leucogranite - Mn Al Fe --- #230 --- Garnet in pegmatitic leucogranite, Quetico subprovince, northwest Ontario
Garnet - Mg Al Cr (etc) --- #222 --- Diamond indicator minerals, kimberlite
Gastropods --- ---- --- See "fossils" section
Gemstones --- ---- --- See also individual species of "semi-precious stones"
Gemstones - beryl (emerald) --- #186--- Prismatic beryl from China
Gemstones - corundum (ruby, sapphire) --- #14 --- Corundum (ruby & sapphire) from India
Geological time scale --- #212 --- Geochronology, oldest rocks, Earth history
Germanium minerals - Ge --- #171 --- Germanite in Cu Ge ore, Tsumeb, Namibia
Geversite - Pt Sb --- #15 --- Cabriite (a palladium mineral) from Noril'sk, Russia
Glass (various) --- ---- --- See also "tektites", "volcanics", "slags", chondrules in meteorites, etc
Glass in slag --- #176 --- Slag from the Durango mining district, Colorado, U.S.A.
Glomerocryst --- #160 --- Porphyry (volcanic tuff), ornamental stone, Dyfed, Wales
Glomerocryst --- #178 --- Glomeroporphyritic metabasite (amphibolite) from China
Glomeroporhyritic texture --- #178 --- Glomeroporphyritic metabasite (amphibolite) from China
Gneiss --- #212 --- Acasta gneiss, Northwest Territories, Canada
Gold - Au --- ---- --- See "native elements - Au", "tellurides", & "ores - Au"
Granitoids --- #9 ---- Charnockite, a deep and meaningful granitoid rock, Baffin Island, Nunavut
Granitoids --- #29 --- Shap granite, Lake District, England
Granitoids --- #30 --- Ross of Mull granite, Scotland
Granitoids --- #47 --- Granitic pegmatite from the Grenville province of S.E. Ontario
Granitoids --- #54 --- Granite boulders of southeastern Wyoming, U.S.A.
Granitoids --- #169 --- Leucogranite textures and mineralogy
Granitoids --- #68 --- Sulphidic charnockite, Kodaikanal, south India
Granitoids --- #92 --- Orbicular granite, coast of northern Chile
Granitoids --- #100 --- Pegmatitic granite from Cornwall, England
Granitoids --- #101 --- Tourmaline-rich granitic breccia from Cornwall, England
Granitoids --- #102 --- Perthitic granite pegmatite, Grenville province, Ontario
Granitoids --- #179 --- Textures in a rapakivi granite from Beijing, China
Granitoids --- #230 --- Mica-rich pegmatitic leucogranite, Quetico subprovince, northwest Ontario
Graphite - C --- #46 --- Graphite from the Bushveld of South Africa
Graptolites --- ---- --- See "fossils" section
Green micas - Cr (fuchsite) --- #35 --- Green mica in gold ore, Western Australia
Green micas - V (roscoelite) --- #95 --- Green micaceous gold ore, Hemlo, Ontario
Greisen --- #152 --- Quartz-wolframite vein (tin-tungsten ore) in greisen, Cligga Head, Cornwall, England
Gupeiite - Fe Si (no specific illustration) --- #44 --- Silicides in fulgurite and ferrosilicon
Gypsum - Ca S --- #165 --- Sand-infused gypsum "rose", Aransas Pass, Texas, U.S.A.
Halides - Ca F --- #140 --- Blue John fluorite, Derbyshire, England (MM03)
Halides - Na Cl --- #110 --- Sea salt (in essence, "synthetic halite") from Essex, England
Halleflinta --- #53 --- Halleflinta from southwest Wales
Hapkeite - Fe Si (no specific illustration) --- #44 --- Silicides in fulgurite and ferrosilicon
Hausmannite - Mn --- #157 --- Manganese ores, Kalahari manganese field, South Africa
Hematite --- #164 --- Botryoidal hematite, iron oxide from Bou Azzer, Morocco
Hemimorphite - Zn --- #195 --- Hemimorphite from Ojuela mine, Mapimi, Durango, Mexico
Hexagonite (variety of amphibole) --- #215 --- Manganoan tremolite ("hexagonite") from Balmat, New York
Hydrocarbons --- #64 --- Anthraxolite hydrocarbon, Sudbury, Ontario
Hydrothermal alteration --- #35 --- Green mica in gold ore, Western Australia
Hydrothermal alteration --- #45 --- Chrysocolla from Wyoming, U.S.A.
Hydrothermal alteration --- #63 --- Jasperoid, Jerritt Canyon, Nevada, U.S.A.
Hydroxides - Mg --- #112 --- Brucite ophicalcite (marble) from Skye, Scotland
Ice --- #38 --- Ice - a mineral!
Illite --- #203 --- Qingtian stone, superb lapidary material from China
Ilmenite - Fe Ti Mg --- #222 --- Diamond indicator minerals, kimberlite
Impact events --- #75 --- Shatter cone, Slate Islands, N.W. Ontario
Impact events --- #159 --- Lapilli tuff / cherty sediment of Sudbury impact event, central Ontario
Impact events --- #213 --- Impact ejecta, breccias and ore, Thunder Bay and Sudbury, Ontario
Impact events - tektites --- ---- --- See "tektites"
Impact events - meteorites --- #146 --- Chelyabinsk LL5 brecciated ordinary chondrite meteorite, Russia
Impact events - meteorites --- #154 --- Classification of an NWA (Northwest Africa) "black chondrite" meteorite (NWA 12807)
Indicator minerals --- #222 --- Diamond indicator minerals, kimberlite
Inosilicates - agrellite --- #94 --- Agrellite and eudialyte, Kipawa, Quebec
Inosilicates - amphiboles --- #147 --- Andesite lava from Poas volcano, at Bosque de Paz, Costa Rica
Inosilicates - amphiboles - arfvedsonite --- #138 --- Eudialyte syenite from Kipawa, Quebec (MM02)
Inosilicates - amphiboles --- #70 --- Nephrite jade from northern British Columbia
Inosilicates - amphiboles --- #166 --- Unusual amphibole from the Grenville province, Ontario
Inosilicates - amphiboles --- #215 --- Manganoan tremolite ("hexagonite") from Balmat, New York
Inosilicates - pyroxenes --- #125 --- Chrome diopside, Russia
Inosilicates - pyroxenes --- #197 --- Chrome diopside in lodranite meteorite NWA 11129, Morocco
Inosilicates - pyroxenes --- #217 --- Clinopyroxene megacrysts in xenolithic basalt, North China craton, Hebei, China
Inosilicates - pyroxenes --- #224 --- Irish stone tools made from Italian jadeitite
Inosilicates - pyroxenoids --- #22 --- Pyroxmangite (`rhodonite') from Colorado, U.S.A.
Intermetallics - Cu Sn Pd --- #15 --- Cabriite (a palladium mineral) from Noril'sk, Russia
Iron - Fe --- #121 --- Putorana metal-rich basalt / pseudometeorite, Siberia
Iron - Fe --- #221 --- Native iron from Russia, II
Iron formation - BIF --- #88 --- Banded iron formation, Western Australia
Iron formation - BIF --- #98 --- Banded iron formation, south India
iss (Cu-rich sulphide "matte") --- ---- --- See "sulphides"
Jade --- #70 --- Jade from northern British Columbia
Jade --- #207 --- Massive jade as decorative piece, from China
Jadeitite --- #224 --- Irish stone tools made from Italian jadeitite
Jasper (red flinty/cherty silica) --- #88 --- Banded iron formation, Western Australia
Jasperoid (hydrothermal silicification) --- #63 --- Jasperoid, Jerritt Canyon, Nevada, U.S.A.
Kamacite - Ni Fe --- #127 --- Seymchan pallasite / iron meteorite, Siberia
Kamacite (a variant of native iron) --- ---- --- See the majority of "meteorite" records, especially irons and stony-irons
Kaolinite --- #203 --- Qingtian stone, superb lapidary material from China
Khondalite --- #43 --- Khondalite from Kerala, south India
Kimberlite indicator minerals --- #222 --- Diamond indicator minerals, kimberlite
Krageroite - metagabbro --- #52 --- Titaniferous metagabbro, Norway
Kutnohorite - Mn --- #157 --- Manganese ores, Kalahari manganese field, South Africa
Lamellibranchs --- ---- --- See "fossils - bivalves"
Lamprophyres --- #56 --- Lamprophyre (intermediate porphyry) from British Columbia
Lapilli tuff --- #159 --- Lapilli tuff / cherty sediment of Sudbury impact event, central Ontario
Lapilli tuff --- #213 --- Impact ejecta, Thunder Bay, Ontario
Larderite --- #203 --- Qingtian stone, superb lapidary material from China
Lepidolite --- ---- --- See "phyllosilicates"
Leucogranite --- #169 --- Leucogranite textures and mineralogy
Leucogranite --- #230 --- Mica-rich pegmatitic leucogranite, Quetico subprovince, northwest Ontario
Lightning --- ---- --- See "fulgurites"
Limestones --- ---- --- See also "sediments"
Limestones --- #211 --- Tyndall stone, trace fossils, Ordovician limestone, Manitoba
Listwanite --- #35 --- Green mica in gold ore, Western Australia
Lithographic stone --- #168 --- Echinodermata and the lithographic stone of Solnhofen, Germany
Luobusaite - Fe Si --- #44 --- Silicides in fulgurite and ferrosilicon
Luobusaite - Fe Si --- #205 --- Chromitite, Luobusa ophiolite, southern Tibet (no illustration)
Magma chamber processes --- #31 --- Allivalite, Rhum, Scotland
Magnetite --- #71 --- Oxide-rich pegmatite, Grenville province, S.E. Ontario
Magnetite --- #230 --- Magnetite in pegmatitic leucogranite, Quetico subprovince, northwest Ontario
Manganese oxides - Mn --- #157 --- Manganese ores, Kalahari manganese field, South Africa
Manganese oxides - Mn --- #182 --- Manganese oxide (pyrolusite) dendrites, Atacama desert, Chile
Marble --- ---- --- See "metasediments"
Marl --- #36 --- Pyrite from Navajun, Spain
Megacrysts (clinopyroxene) --- #217 --- Peridotite mantle xenoliths in basalt, North China craton, Hebei, China
Metacinnabar - Hg --- #4 ---- Cinnabar, mercury ore from Almaden, Spain
Metadiorite --- #178 --- Glomeroporphyritic metadiorite (amphibolite) from China
Metagabbros --- #149 --- Grenville metagabbro from Cordova (gold) Mines, Ontario
Metagabbros --- #150 --- Coronitic Grenville metagabbro, Muskoka district, Ontario
Metagabbros --- #13 --- Gabbro boulder, southern Ontario
Metagabbros --- #28 --- Gabbro boulder, Marmora, Ontario
Metagabbros --- #52 --- Titaniferous metagabbro, Norway
Metagabbros --- #65 --- Odegaardite, metagabbro from Norway
Metagabbros --- #71 --- Oxide-rich pegmatite, Grenville province, S.E. Ontario
Metasediments - silicate --- #43 --- Khondalite from Kerala, south India
Metasediments - marble --- #51 --- Forsterite marble, Scotland
Metasediments - marble --- #58 --- Marbles of the Grenville province, S.E. Ontario
Metasediments - marble --- #204 --- Marble, York River zone, Bancroft, Ontario, Canada
Metasediments - marble --- #112 --- Brucite ophicalcite (marble) from Skye, Scotland
Metasediments --- #128 --- Chiastolite-muscovite schist pebble, Newfoundland
Metavolcanics --- #53 --- Halleflinta from southwest Wales
Meteorites - achondrites - brachinites --- #188 --- NWA 10637, NWA 6292 and NWA 5363 brachinite(-like) achondrite meteorites
Meteorites - achondrites - HED --- #17-18 Double take: igneous rocks from Earth & space (Millbillillie eucrite)
Meteorites - achondrites - HED --- #104 --- Dhofar 485 howardite meteorite, Oman
Meteorites - achondrites - HED --- #216 --- Saricicek howardite (Vestan achondrite) meteorite breccia
Meteorites - achondrites - LOD --- #197 --- Lodranite NWA 11129, an achondrite meteorite, Morocco
Meteorites - achondrites - WIN --- #41 --- NWA 1463 Winonaite (rare achondrite meteorite), Northwest Africa)
Meteorites - chondrites - CBa --- #117 --- Bencubbin CBa bencubbinite meteorite, Western Australia
Meteorites - chondrites - CBa --- #118 --- Gujba CBa bencubbinite meteorite, Nigeria
Meteorites - chondrites - CM2 --- #212 --- Oldest rock known on Earth / note on oldest dates from meteorites like Murchison
Meteorites - chondrites - CO3 --- #170 --- NWA 6136 CO3 carbonaceous chondrite, Morocco
Meteorites - chondrites - CV3 --- #136 --- Allende CV3 carbonaceous chondrite meteorite, Mexico
Meteorites - chondrites - CV3 --- #212 --- Oldest rock known on Earth / note on oldest dates from meteorites like Allende
Meteorites - chondrites - H4 --- #119 --- NWA 5425 H4 chondrite meteorite, Morocco
Meteorites - chondrites - H5 --- #135 --- Covert H5 ordinary chondrite meteorite, Kansas, U.S.A.
Meteorites - chondrites - H5 --- #227 --- Gao-Guenie H5 meteorite shower, Burkina Faso
Meteorites - chondrites - L3 --- #49 --- Moorabie L3.8 chondrite, a meteorite from N.S.W., Australia
Meteorites - chondrites - L3-6 --- #83 --- NWA 869 brecciated chondrite meteorite, Morocco
Meteorites - chondrites - L4 --- #154 --- Classification of an NWA (Northwest Africa) "black chondrite" meteorite (NWA 12807)
Meteorites - chondrites - L6 --- #7 ---- Holbrook meteorite (Arizona, U.S.A.)
Meteorites - chondrites - L6 --- #3 ---- Meteorite recognition - Kitchener
Meteorites - chondrites - LL3 --- #162 --- NWA 5731, LL3.2 chondrite meteorite, Morocco
Meteorites - chondrites - LL5 --- #146 --- Chelyabinsk LL5 brecciated ordinary chondrite meteorite, Russia
Meteorites - general --- #3 ---- Meteorite recognition
Meteorites - irons - IAB --- #3 ---- Meteorite recognition - Toronto
Meteorites - irons - IAB --- #173 --- Maslyanino iron meteorite with silicate inclusions, Russia
Meteorites - irons - IAB-MG --- #93 --- Campo del Cielo iron meteorite, Argentina
Meteorites - irons - IAB-sLL --- #129 --- Toluca iron meteorite, Mexico
Meteorites - irons - IC --- #194 --- Mount Dooling IC iron meteorite, W.Australia
Meteorites - irons - IIAB --- #193 --- Agoudal IIAB iron meteorite, Morocco
Meteorites - irons - IVA --- #86 --- Gibeon iron meteorite, Namibia
Meteorites - irons - UNGR --- #151 --- Gebel Kamil nickel-rich iron meteorite, Egypt
Meteorites - largest (heaviest) --- #93 --- Campo del Cielo iron meteorite, Argentina
Meteorites - micrometeorites --- #227 --- Gao-Guenie H5 meteorite shower, Burkina Faso
Meteorites - stony-irons - MES --- #145 --- NWA 1242 mesosiderite, a stony-iron meteorite, Libya
Meteorites - stony-irons - PAL --- #116 --- Springwater pallasite meteorite, Saskatchewan
Meteorites - stony-irons - PAL --- #127 --- Seymchan pallasite / iron meteorite, Siberia
Meteorites - stony-irons - PAL --- #127 --- Photo, slice of Brenham pallasite, Kansas, U.S.A.
Meteorites - stony-irons - PAL --- #127 --- Photo, slice of Brahin pallasite, Belarus
Micas --- ---- --- See "phyllosilicates"
Microcline (var. amazonite) --- ---- --- See "tectosilicates - feldspars"
Millerite - Ni --- #5 ---- Violarite, nickel ore from Sudbury, Ontario
Mimetite - Pb As --- #132 --- Mimetite, cerussite, sphaerocobaltite, Morocco
Minium - Pb --- #113 --- Minium from Colorado and Arizona, U.S.A.
Monzogranite --- #29 --- Shap granite, Lake District, England
Mudan stone --- #178 --- Glomeroporphyritic amphibolitic diorite porphyry from China
Muscovite mica --- #230 --- Mica-rich pegmatitic leucogranite, Quetico subprovince, northwest Ontario
Nacrite (kaolinite polymorph) --- #203 --- Qingtian stone, superb lapidary material from China
Naquite - Fe Si --- #44 --- Silicides in fulgurite and ferrosilicon
Native elements - Ag --- #126 --- Native silver in vein, Silver Islet, Thunder Bay area, Ontario
Native elements - Ag (with PGM) --- #15 --- Cabriite (a palladium mineral) from Noril'sk, Russia
Native elements - Au --- #21 --- Native gold from California, U.S.A.
Native elements - Au --- #77 --- Native gold from Guyana
Native elements - Au --- #78 --- Native gold from Timmins, Ontario
Native elements - Au --- #158 --- Gold-silver tellurides, Colorado, U.S.A., I
Native elements - Au --- #8 ---- Berthierite, Iron-antimony sulphide from Borneo
Native elements - Au - goldsmithing --- #223 --- Early Irish goldsmithing tools
Native elements - C --- #25 --- Diamonds from Africa
Native elements - C --- #26 --- Diamond and carbonado, Siberia & Africa
Native elements - C --- #46 --- Graphite from the Bushveld of South Africa
Native elements - Cu --- #106 --- Native copper and datolite, northern Michigan, U.S.A
Native elements - Cu --- #143 --- Native "float copper" from Houghton county, Michigan, U.S.A. (MM05)
Native elements - Fe --- #121 --- Putorana metal-rich basalt / pseudometeorite, Siberia
Native elements - Fe --- #221 --- Native iron from Russia, II (Khungtukun)
Native elements - Os --- #177 --- Native osmium from the Urals of Russia
Nephrite jade --- #70 --- Jade from northern British Columbia
Nephrite jade --- #207 --- Massive jade as decorative piece, from China
Nesosilicates - garnet in khondalite --- #43 --- Khondalite from Kerala, south India
Nesosilicates - garnet in leucogranite --- #169 --- Leucogranite textures and mineralogy
Nesosilicates - garnet in leucogranite --- #230 --- Garnet in pegmatitic leucogranite, Quetico subprovince, northwest Ontario
Nesosilicates - garnet in kimberlite --- #222 --- Diamond indicator minerals, kimberlite
Nesosilicates - hemimorphite --- #195 --- Smithsonite from Tsumeb, Namibia
Nesosilicates - olivine --- #155 --- Dunitic mantle xenolith from Mount Leura, western Victoria, Australia
Nesosilicates - olivine --- #31 --- Allivalite, Rhum, Scotland
Nesosilicates - olivine --- #49 --- Moorabie L3.8 chondrite, a meteorite from N.S.W., Australia
Nesosilicates - olivine --- #127 --- Seymchan pallasite / iron meteorite, Siberia
Nesosilicates - olivine --- #188 --- NWA 10637, NWA 6292 and NWA 5363 brachinite(-like) achondrite meteorites
Nesosilicates - sillimanite --- #43 --- Khondalite from Kerala, south India
Nesosilicates - titanite --- #167 --- Titanite (sphene) from the Grenville province, Ontario
Neumann lines --- #193 --- Agoudal IIAB iron meteorite, Morocco
Niccolite - Ni As --- #40 --- Cobalt-nickel arsenide ore, Cobalt district, Ontario
Nickel - Ni --- ---- --- See "niccolite" and iron meteorite phases like kamacite and schreibersite
Nickel antimonide --- #184--- Breithauptite, nickel antimonide, from Cobalt, Ontario
Nickel arsenides --- #40 --- Cobalt-nickel arsenide ore, Cobalt district, Ontario
Nickel sulphides --- #97 --- Massive sulphide bear as folk-art carving (Sudbury, Ontario)
Nickel sulphides --- #5 ---- Violarite, nickel ore from Sudbury, Ontario
Nickel-iron alloys: taenite --- #127 --- Seymchan pallasite / iron meteorite, Siberia
Nitrides - qingsongite - B N --- #205 --- Chromitite, Luobusa ophiolite, Tibet (no illustration)
Nodules (mantle nodules) --- ---- --- See "xenoliths"
Nummulites --- #226 --- Camerina, Eocene fossil nummulite foraminiferan, Java, Indonesia
Oldest rock on Earth --- #212 --- Acasta gneiss, Northwest Territories, Canada
Olivine --- ---- --- See "nesosilicates - olivine"
Omars - distinctive erratics --- #74 --- Siltstone cobble, Slate Islands, N.W. Ontario
Ophicalcite --- #112 --- Brucite ophicalcite (marble) from Skye, Scotland
Ophiolites - chromitite - Cr --- #205 --- Chromitite, Luobusa ophiolite, southern Tibet
Ophiolites - serpentinite --- #210 --- Serpentinized mantle peridotite, Gros Morne, western Newfoundland (MM06)
Ophiuroids --- ---- --- See "fossils" section
Orbicular texture --- #92 --- Orbicular granite, coast of northern Chile
Ores --- ---- --- See individual commodities, sulphides, etc - a few examples follow:
Ores - Au --- #80 --- Pyritic gold ore, Hemlo, Ontario
Ores - Au --- #95 --- Green micaceous gold ore, Hemlo, Ontario
Ores - Co Ni As --- #40 --- Cobalt-nickel arsenide ore, Cobalt district, Ontario
Ornamental stone --- #178 --- Glomeroporphyritic amphibolitic diorite porphyry from China
Ornamental stone --- #203 --- Qingtian stone, superb lapidary material from China
Orpiment - As --- #180 --- Arsenic sulphides realgar and orpiment from China
Orpiment - As --- #99 --- Galena, quartz and orpiment, Peru
Orthooclase alkali feldspar --- ---- --- See "tectosilicates - feldspars"
Osmium - Os --- #177 --- Native osmium from the Urals of Russia
Oxides - Al --- #14 --- Corundum (ruby & sapphire) from India
Oxides - Al --- #91 --- Grenville corundum, east of Bancroft, Ontario
Oxides - Cr Fe --- #60 --- UG-2 chromitite, Bushveld complex, South Africa
Oxides - Fe (magnetite, ilmenite) --- #71 --- Magnetite-rich pegmatite, Grenville province, S.E. Ontario
Oxides - Fe --- #230 --- Magnetite in a pegmatitic leucogranite, Quetico subprovince, northwest Ontario
Oxides - Fe --- #164 --- Botryoidal hematite, iron oxide from Bou Azzer, Morocco
Oxides - Fe Ti - ilmenite in kimberlite --- #222 --- Diamond indicator minerals, kimberlite
Oxides - water ice --- #38 --- Ice - a mineral!
Oxides - Mn --- #157 --- Manganese ores, Kalahari manganese field, South Africa
Oxides - Mn --- #182 --- Manganese oxide (pyrolusite) dendrites, Atacama desert, Chile
Oxides - Pb --- #113 --- Minium from Colorado and Arizona, U.S.A.
Oxides - Sn --- #209 --- Rich cassiterite tin ore, Cornwall, England
Oxides - Ti --- #52 --- Titaniferous metagabbro, Norway
Oxides- Zn Fe Mn --- #198 --- Franklinite in fluorescent zinc ore, New Jersey, U.S.A.
Pegmatites - granite (tourmaline) --- #100 --- Pegmatitic granite, Tregonning-Godolphin stock, Cornwall, England
Pegmatites - granite (feldspar) --- #105 --- Amazonite feldspar from Sidamo, southern Ethiopia
Pegmatites - oxide metagabbro (magnetite) --- #71 --- Oxide-rich pegmatite, Grenville province, S.E. Ontario
Pegmatitic granite --- #230 --- Mica-rich pegmatitic leucogranite, Quetico subprovince, northwest Ontario
Pelecypods --- ---- --- See "fossils - bivalves"
Peony stone --- #178 --- Glomeroporphyritic amphibolitic diorite porphyry from China
Peperite --- #114 --- Peperite identified in outcrop in Tigrai, Ethiopia
Peridotite --- #82 --- Slickensides, Current Lake, northwest Ontario
Peridotite --- #210 --- Serpentinized mantle peridotite, Gros Morne, western Newfoundland (MM06)
Peridotite --- #217 --- Peridotite mantle xenoliths in basalt, North China craton, Hebei, China
Perryite - Fe Si(no specific illustration) --- #44 --- Silicides in fulgurite and ferrosilicon
Phenocrysts - K-feldspar in granite --- #29 --- Shap granite, Lake District, England
Phenocrysts - plagioclase and hornblende in andesite --- #147 --- Andesite lava from Poas volcano, at Bosque de Paz, Costa Rica
Phenocryst --- ---- --- See also "porphyry", "porphyritic", "megacryst"
Philippinite (australite) tektite --- #156 --- Historic "soccer ball" tektite from the Philippines, and others
Phlogopite --- ---- --- See "phyllosilicates"
Phonolite --- #161 --- Gold-silver tellurides, Colorado, U.S.A., II
Phosphates --- #1 ---- Apatite & orange calcite from Renfrew County, Grenville province, Ontario
Phosphates --- #2 ---- Apatite & biotite from the Bancroft area, Grenville province, Ontario
Phosphates --- #107 --- Apatite and phlogopite, Palabora, South Africa
Phosphates --- #199 --- Wavellite from north Devon, England
Phosphides - schreibersite --- #127 --- Seymchan pallasite / iron meteorite, Siberia
Phosphides - schreibersite --- #193 --- Agoudal IIAB iron meteorite, Morocco
Phyllosilicates - apophyllite --- #134 --- Apophyllite from northern San Luis Potosi, Mexico (MM01)
Phyllosilicates - apophyllite --- #142 --- Zeolites and apophyllite from Pune (Poona), Maharashtra, India
Phyllosilicates - dickite --- #203 --- Qingtian stone, superb lapidary material from China
Phyllosilicates - green mica - Cr --- #35 --- Green mica in gold ore, Western Australia
Phyllosilicates - green mica - V --- #95 --- Green micaceous gold ore, Hemlo, Ontario
Phyllosilicates - illite --- #203 --- Qingtian stone, superb lapidary material from China
Phyllosilicates - kaolinite --- #203 --- Qingtian stone, superb lapidary material from China
Phyllosilicates - micas --- #107 --- Apatite and phlogopite, Palabora, South Africa
Phyllosilicates - micas - Li --- #66 --- Lepidolite, Harding pegmatite, New Mexico, U.S.A.
Phyllosilicates - micas - Li --- #202 --- Tourmaline and lepidolite from southern California, U.S.A.
Phyllosilicates - micas --- #230 --- Muscovitic, pegmatitic leucogranite, Quetico subprovince, northwest Ontario
Phyllosilicates - nacrite --- #203 --- Qingtian stone, superb lapidary material from China
Phyllosilicates - pyrophyllite --- #203 --- Qingtian stone, superb lapidary material from China
Phyllosilicates - serpentine --- #210 --- Serpentinized mantle peridotite, Gros Morne, western Newfoundland
Plagioclase feldspar --- ---- --- See, e.g., "tectosilicates - feldspars", "anorthosites"
Plagioclase feldspar --- #50 --- Calcic anorthosite, northern Ontario
Plagioclase feldspar --- #17-18 Double take: igneous rocks from Earth & space
Platinum Group Elements - PGE (see also PGM) --- #31 --- PGE in Rhum layered intrusion, Scotland
Platinum Group Mineral - PGM - Cu Sn Pd (cabriite) --- #15 --- Cabriite (a palladium mineral) from Noril'sk, Russia
Platinum Group Mineral - PGM - Pt Sb (geversite) --- #15 --- Cabriite (a palladium mineral) from Noril'sk, Russia
Platinum Group Mineral - PGM - Os (native osmium) --- #177 --- Native osmium from the Urals of Russia
Platinum Group Mineral - PGM - Pt As (sperrylite) --- #81 --- Sperrylite, Sudbury, Ontario
Platinum Group Mineral - PGM - Pt As (sperrylite) --- #81b -- Sperrylite, Sudbury, Ontario (.pdf, 138 kb)
Porcellanite (no photo) --- #224 --- Irish stone tools made from Italian jadeitite
Porphyry / porphyritic --- #147 --- Andesite lava from Poas volcano, at Bosque de Paz, Costa Rica
Porphyry / porphyritic --- #160 --- Porphyry (volcanic tuff), ornamental stone, Dyfed, Wales
Pyrargyrite - Ag Sb S --- #20 --- Silver ore, Fresnillo, Zacatecas, Mexico
Pyrite - Fe --- #36 --- Pyrite from Navajun, Spain
Pyrite - Fe --- #42 --- Pyrite from Nanisivik, Baffin Island, Nunavut
Pyrite - Fe --- #68 --- Pyrite in charnockite, Kodaikanal, south India
Pyrite - Fe --- #172 --- Pyrite sun (concretion), Illinois, U.S.A.
Pyrite - Fe --- #215 --- Pyrite from Balmat, New York
Pyrolusite - Mn --- #182 --- Manganese oxide (pyrolusite) dendrites, Atacama desert, Chile
Pyrophyllite --- #203 --- Qingtian stone, superb lapidary material from China
Pyroxenes --- ---- --- See "inosilicates - pyroxenes"
Pyroxmangite --- #22 --- Pyroxmangite (`rhodonite') from Colorado, U.S.A.
Pyrrhotite - Fe --- #68 --- Sulphidic charnockite, Kodaikanal, south India
Quartz - Si --- ---- --- See "tectosilicates - silica"
Quartz (amethyst, etc) - Si --- #206 --- Quartz as semi-precious stone: nine faceted examples (smoky quartz, rose quartz, etc)
Quartz-ankerite-mariposite ("QAM") rock --- #35 --- Green mica in gold ore, Western Australia
Quartz veins --- #225 --- Extensional quartz veins, Cork and Kerry, southern Ireland
Quartzite --- #174 --- Quartzite from Quandary Peak, Colorado, U.S.A.
Qingsongite, cubic BN --- #205 --- Chromitite, Luobusa ophiolite, Tibet (no illustration)
Qingtian stone --- #203 --- Qingtian stone, superb lapidary material from China
Rapakivi granite texture --- #179 --- Textures in a rapakivi granite from Beijing, China
Realgar - As --- #180 --- Arsenic sulphides realgar and orpiment from China
Red Crag --- #183 --- The bivalve Glycimeris in the Pliocene Red Crag of Essex, England
Rhodonite (pyroxmangite) --- #22 --- Pyroxmangite (`rhodonite') from Colorado, U.S.A.
Richterite --- #166 --- Unusual amphibole from the Grenville province, Ontario
Rizalite (philippinite) tektite --- #156 --- Historic "soccer ball" tektite from the Philippines, and others
Roscoelite (V green mica) --- #95 --- Green micaceous gold ore, Hemlo, Ontario
Rubellite (tourmaline)- B --- #202 --- Tourmaline and lepidolite from southern California, U.S.A.
Rucklidgeite - Pb Bi Ag Te --- #67 --- Rucklidgeite, rare telluride, N.E. Ontario
Safflorite - Co As --- #40 --- Cobalt-nickel arsenide ore, Cobalt district, Ontario
Saligrams --- #139 --- Fossil "surprise" cephalopods from Nepal
Sand (protolith of fulgurite) --- #37 --- Fulgurite from Ontario
Scapolite --- #90 --- Scapolite from Quebec
Scapolite --- #65 --- Odegaardite, metagabbro from Norway
Schreibersite - Fe Ni P --- #127 --- Seymchan pallasite / iron meteorite, Siberia
Sediments - BIF --- #88 --- Banded iron formation, Western Australia
Sediments - BIF --- #98 --- Banded iron formation, south India
Sediments - conglomerate --- #72 --- Palaeobeach with igneous pebbles, Cuba
Sediments - dolostone tempestite --- #219 --- Tempestite - Jixian dolostone, Tianjin, China
Sediments - limestone --- #168 --- Echinodermata and the lithographic stone of Solnhofen, Germany
Sediments - limestone with fossils --- #208 --- Shelly Ordovician limestone, Campbellford, southeast Ontario
Sediments - limestone with trace fossils --- #211 --- Tyndall stone, trace fossils, Ordovician limestone, Manitoba
Sediments - marl --- #36 --- Pyrite from Navajun, Spain
Sediments - quartzite --- #174 --- Quartzite from Quandary Peak, Colorado, U.S.A.
Sediments - sand (protolith of fulgurite) --- #37 --- Fulgurite from Ontario
Sediments - sand - Red Crag --- #183 --- The bivalve Glycimeris in the Pliocene Red Crag of Essex, England
Sediments - sandstone --- #84 --- Concretion, northwest Ontario
Sediments - shale (black shale) --- #172 --- Pyrite sun (concretion), Illinois, U.S.A.
Sediments - siltstone --- #74 --- Siltstone cobble, Slate Islands, N.W. Ontario
Selenides - Cu Se --- #61 --- Umangite: selenides from Moravia and Saskatchewan
Semi-precious stones --- ---- --- cf. gemstones: see amethyst, quartz, jade, etc
Serpentinite --- #210 --- Serpentinized mantle peridotite, Gros Morne, western Newfoundland (MM06)
Sheet silicates --- ---- --- See "phyllosilicates"
Silicides - Fe Si - at least 8 species --- #44 --- Silicides in fulgurite and ferrosilicon
Silicides in fulgurite - hapkeite (no photo) - Fe Si --- #37 --- Fulgurite from Ontario
Silicides - luobusaite - Fe Si --- #205 --- Chromitite, Luobusa ophiolite, southern Tibet (no illustration)
Sillimanite --- #43 --- Khondalite from Kerala, south India
Silver - Ag --- ---- --- See "native elements - Ag", "tellurides" & "sulphosalts - Ag"
Skarn (gold) - Au --- #153 --- Gold skarn with arsenopyrite, Osoyoos, southern Okanagan, British Columbia
Skarn - Mg --- #112 --- Brucite ophicalcite (marble) from Skye, Scotland
Skutterudite - Ni Co As --- #40 --- Cobalt-nickel arsenide ore, Cobalt district, Ontario
Slags - Sudbury, ON --- #3 ---- Meteorite recognition - slags
Slags - Sudbury, ON --- #192 --- Nickel smelter slag, Sudbury, Ontario
Slags - southern Ontario --- #27 --- Copper-rich slag, Belleville, Ontario
Slags - Durango, CO --- #176 --- Slag from the Durango mining district, Colorado, U.S.A.
Slickensides --- #82 --- Slickensides, northwest Ontario
Smithsonite - Zn --- #195 --- Smithsonite from Tsumeb, Namibia
Sorosilicates - epidote --- #50 --- Calcic anorthosite, northern Ontario
Sorosilicates - hemimorphite --- #195 --- Hemimorphite from Ojuela mine, Mapimi, Durango, Mexico
Sperrylite - Pt As --- #81 --- Sperrylite, Sudbury, Ontario
Sperrylite - Pt As --- #81b -- Sperrylite, Sudbury, Ontario (.pdf, 138 kb)
Sphaerocobaltite --- #132 --- Mimetite, cerussite, sphaerocobaltite, Morocco
Sphalerite - Zn --- #12 --- Banded sphalerite from Nanisivik, Baffin Island, Nunavut
Sphalerite - Zn --- #59 --- Sphalerite-rich ore, Lake District, N.W. England
Sphalerite - Zn --- #48 --- Zinc-lead vein from the Grenville province of S.E. Ontario
Sphalerite - Zn --- #148 --- Silica-flooded sulphidic ore, Mineral de Pozos, Guanajuato, Mexico
Sphalerite - Zn --- #171 --- Sphalerite in Cu Ge (Zn Ga) ore, Tsumeb, Namibia
Sphalerite - Zn --- #175 --- "Zebra rock", a lead-zinc-silver ore from Colorado, U.S.A.
Sphalerite - Zn --- #198 --- Sphalerite in fluorescent zinc ore, New Jersey, U.S.A.
Sphalerite - Zn Cd (etc) --- #215 --- Sphalerite (zinc ore / chemistry), Long Lake, Ontario & Balmat, New York
Sphene --- #167 --- Titanite (sphene) from the Grenville province, Ontario
Stannite group - Cu Fe Sn S --- #152 --- Quartz-wolframite vein (tin-tungsten ore) in greisen, Cligga Head, Cornwall, England
Stibnite - Sb --- #10 --- Stibnite from South Africa
Stibnite - Sb --- #137 --- Stibnite, antimony ore from Romania (MM04)
Stibnite in cinnabar - Sb Hg --- #4 ---- Cinnabar, mercury ore from Almaden, Spain
Stilbite --- #142 --- Zeolites and apophyllite from Pune (Poona), Maharashtra, India
Structures --- #75 --- Shatter cone, Slate Islands, N.W. Ontario
Structures --- #82 --- Slickensides, northwest Ontario
Structures --- #89 --- Brecciated chert, Western Australia
Sudbury breccia and ejecta --- #213 --- Impact ejecta, breccias and ore, Thunder Bay and Sudbury, Ontario
Suessite - Fe Si(no specific illustration) --- #44 --- Silicides in fulgurite and ferrosilicon
Sulphates - Ba --- #228 --- Barite on quartz, Jiangxi, China
Sulphates - Ca --- #165 --- Sand-infused gypsum "rose", Aransas Pass, Texas, U.S.A.
Sulphides - Cu --- #115 --- Chalcopyrite ore, McCreedy West mine, Sudbury, Ontario
Sulphides - Cu --- #213 --- Impact ejecta, and chalcopyrite ore, McCreedy West mine, Sudbury, Ontario
Sulphides - Cu --- #190 --- Sudbury copper-PGE ore, Broken Hammer deposit
Sulphides - Cu --- #171 --- Germanite in Cu Ge (Zn) ore, Tsumeb, Namibia
Sulphides - Cu --- #148 --- Silica-flooded sulphidic ore, Mineral de Pozos, Guanajuato, Mexico
Sulphides - iss "matte" --- #176 --- Slag from the Durango mining district, Colorado, U.S.A.
Sulphides - iss "matte" --- #27 --- Copper-rich slag, Belleville, Ontario
Sulphides - pyrite - Fe --- #36 --- Pyrite from Navajun, Spain
Sulphides - pyrite - Fe --- #42 --- Pyrite from Nanisivik, Baffin Island, Nunavut
Sulphides - pyrite - Fe --- #68 --- Sulphidic charnockite, Kodaikanal, south India
Sulphides - pyrite - Fe --- #172 --- Pyrite sun (concretion), Illinois, U.S.A.
Sulphides - pyrrhotite - Fe --- #68 --- Sulphidic charnockite, Kodaikanal, south India
Sulphides - troilite - Fe --- #127 --- Seymchan pallasite / iron meteorite, Siberia
Sulphides - Fe As --- #153 --- Gold skarn with arsenopyrite, Osoyoos, southern Okanagan, British Columbia
Sulphides - Fe Ni Cu --- #97 --- Massive sulphide bear as folk-art carving (Sudbury, Ontario)
Sulphides - Hg --- #4 ---- Cinnabar, mercury ore from Almaden, Spain
Sulphides - Ni --- #5 ---- Violarite, nickel ore from Sudbury, Ontario
Sulphides - Pb As --- #99 --- Galena, quartz and orpiment, Peru
Sulphides - As --- #180 --- Arsenic sulphides realgar and orpiment from China
Sulphides - Pb Zn --- #48 --- Zinc-lead vein from the Grenville province of S.E. Ontario
Sulphides - Pb Zn Ag --- #175 --- "Zebra rock", a lead-zinc-silver ore from Colorado, U.S.A.
Sulphides - Pb Zn --- #196 --- Unusual galena habit from Madan, Bulgaria
Sulphides - Pb Ag --- #200 --- Galena crystal habits, Viburnum Trend, Missouri and Keno Hill, Yukon
Sulphides - galena - Pb --- #214 --- Galena crystal habits, Huanzala, Peru & Madan, Bulgaria
Sulphides - Sb --- #10 --- Stibnite from South Africa
Sulphides - Sb --- #137 --- Stibnite, antimony ore from Romania (MM04)
Sulphides - Zn --- #12 --- Banded sphalerite from Nanisivik, Baffin Island, Nunavut
Sulphides - Zn --- #59 --- Sphalerite-rich ore, Lake District, N.W. England
Sulphides - Zn --- #198 --- Sphalerite in fluorescent zinc ore, New Jersey, U.S.A.
Sulphides - Zn Cd (etc) --- #215 --- Sphalerite (zinc ore / chemistry), Long Lake, Ontario & Balmat, New York
Sulphides - Zn Cu Ge Ga --- #171 --- Germanite in Cu Ge (Zn) ore, Tsumeb, Namibia
Sulphides - Zn Cu Pb Ag --- #148 --- Silica-flooded sulphidic ore, Mineral de Pozos, Guanajuato, Mexico
Sulphides - stannite group - Cu Fe Sn --- #152 --- Quartz-wolframite vein (tin-tungsten ore) in greisen, Cligga Head, Cornwall, England
Sulphides - Zn Pb Cu --- #175 --- "Zebra rock", a lead-zinc-silver ore from Colorado, U.S.A.
Sulphosalts - Ag --- #20 --- Silver ore, Fresnillo, Zacatecas, Mexico
Sulphosalts - Cu Pb Sb --- #96 --- Bournonite from Pulacayo, Bolivia
Sulphosalts - Fe Sb --- #8 ---- Berthierite, Iron-antimony sulphide from Borneo
Sulphosalts - Pb Sn Sb --- #33 --- Cylindrite from Bolivia
Sulphosalts - Tl --- #19 --- Thallium in nature (Utah, U.S.A.)
Sulphosalts - Cu Fe As S Ge --- #171 --- Tennantite in Cu Ge ore, Tsumeb, Namibia
Syenites --- #57 --- Pulaskite (syenite) from Rossland, British Columbia
Syenites --- #138 --- Eudialyte syenite from Kipawa, Quebec (MM02)
Sylvanite - Au Ag Te --- #161 --- Gold-silver tellurides, Colorado, U.S.A., II
Taenite - Ni Fe --- #127 --- Seymchan pallasite / iron meteorite, Siberia
Tectosilicates - feldspars - antiperthite (not visible) --- #71 --- Oxide-rich pegmatite, Grenville province, S.E. Ontario
Tectosilicates - microcline feldspar --- #103 --- Amazonite feldspar from Quebec
Tectosilicates - microcline feldspar --- #105 --- Amazonite feldspar from Sidamo, southern Ethiopia
Tectosilicates - orthoclase feldspar --- #29 --- Shap granite, Lake District, England
Tectosilicates - orthoclase feldspar --- #100 --- Pegmatitic granite from Cornwall, England
Tectosilicates - orthoclase feldspar --- #179 --- Textures in a rapakivi granite from Beijing, China
Tectosilicates - plagioclase feldspar --- #50 --- Calcic anorthosite, northern Ontario
Tectosilicates - scapolite --- #90 --- Scapolite from Quebec
Tectosilicates - silica --- #6 ---- Opal in Volcanic rock from Honduras
Tectosilicates - silica --- #16 --- Chert & chalcedony (Pennsylvania, U.S.A.)
Tectosilicates - silica --- #23 --- Chert & microfossils (Pennsylvania, U.S.A.)
Tectosilicates - silica --- #24 --- Chert provenance (Pennsylvania, U.S.A.)
Tectosilicates - silica --- #34 --- Flint walls, Essex, England
Tectosilicates - silica (jasper) --- #88 --- Banded iron formation, Western Australia
Tectosilicates - silica --- #89 --- Brecciated chert, Western Australia
Tectosilicates - silica --- #73 --- Amethyst, Thunder Bay, N.W. Ontario
Tectosilicates - silica --- #76 --- Chert from the Crowe valley, S.E. Ontario
Tectosilicates - silica --- #79 --- Fractured flint from Essex, England
Tectosilicates - quartz - pressure shadows --- #153 --- Gold skarn with arsenopyrite, Osoyoos, southern Okanagan, British Columbia
Tectosilicates - quartz - Si --- #206 --- Quartz as semi-precious stone: nine faceted examples
Tectosilicates - quartz veins --- #225 --- Extensional quartz veins, Cork and Kerry, southern Ireland
Tektites --- #55 --- Tektites from China
Tektites --- #156 --- Historic "soccer ball" tektite from the Philippines
Tellurides - Au Ag Te --- #158 --- Gold-silver tellurides, Colorado, U.S.A., I
Tellurides - Au Ag Te --- #161 --- Gold-silver tellurides, Colorado, U.S.A., II
Tellurides - Pb Bi Ag Te --- #67 --- Rucklidgeite, rare telluride, N.E. Ontario
Tempestite --- #219 --- Tempestite - Jixian dolostone, Tianjin, China
Tennantite - Cu Fe As S --- #171 --- Germanite in Cu Ge ore, Tsumeb, Namibia
Thalassinoides - trace fossils --- #187 --- Thalassinoides, burrow, trace fossil from lower Chalk of Norfolk, England
Thalassinoides - trace fossils --- #211 --- Tyndall stone, trace fossils, Ordovician limestone, Manitoba
Thallium minerals - Tl --- #19 --- Thallium in nature (Utah, U.S.A.)
Thanatocoenosis - paleoecology --- #208 --- Shelly Ordovician limestone, Campbellford, southeast Ontario
Time scales --- #212 --- Geochronology, oldest rocks, Earth history
Tin - Sn - cassiterite --- #209 --- Rich cassiterite tin ore, Cornwall, England
Titanite --- #167 --- Titanite (sphene) from the Grenville province, Ontario
Todorokite - Mn --- #157 --- Manganese ores, Kalahari manganese field, South Africa
Tourmaline --- ---- --- See "borosilicates"
Trace fossils --- #187 --- Thalassinoides, burrow, trace fossil from the lower Chalk of Norfolk, England
Trace fossils --- #211 --- Tyndall stone, trace fossils, Ordovician limestone, Manitoba
Trilobites --- ---- --- See "fossils" section
Troctolite --- #31 --- Allivalite, Rhum, Scotland
Troilite - Fe S --- #127 --- Seymchan pallasite / iron meteorite, Siberia
Troilite - Fe S --- #116 --- Springwater pallasite meteorite, Saskatchewan
Troilite - Fe S --- #135 --- Covert H5 ordinary chondrite meteorite, Kansas, U.S.A.
Troilite - Fe S --- #173 --- Maslyanino iron meteorite with silicate inclusions, Russia
Tuff --- #160 --- Porphyry (volcanic tuff), ornamental stone, Dyfed, Wales
Tuff --- #53 --- Halleflinta from southwest Wales
Tungstates - Fe Mn W --- #152 --- Quartz-wolframite vein (tin-tungsten ore) in greisen, Cligga Head, Cornwall, England
Tyndall stone --- #211 --- Tyndall stone, trace fossils, Ordovician limestone, Manitoba
Ultramafic rocks --- ---- --- See also "peridotite","troctolite", "xenoliths"
Ultramafic rocks --- #144 --- Keweenawan peridotite, Midcontinent Rift, Eagle project, Michigan, U.S.A.
Ultramafic rocks --- #155 --- Dunitic mantle xenolith from Mount Leura, western Victoria, Australia
Umangite - Cu Se --- #61 --- Umangite: selenides from Moravia and Saskatchewan
Vanadates - Pb V --- #131 --- Vanadinite from Morocco
Veins - amethyst, barite - Si Ba --- #73 --- Amethyst, Thunder Bay, N.W. Ontario
Veins - arsenides - Co Ni As --- #40 --- Cobalt-nickel arsenide ore, Cobalt district, Ontario
Veins - chalcopyrite - Cu --- #190 --- Sudbury copper-PGE ore, Broken Hammer deposit
Veins - gold - Au --- #78 --- Native gold from Timmins, Ontario
Veins - quartz --- #225 --- Extensional quartz veins, Cork and Kerry, southern Ireland
Veins - silver - Ag --- #126 --- Native silver in vein, Silver Islet, Thunder Bay area, Ontario
Veins - silver sulphosalts - Ag --- #20 --- Silver ore, Fresnillo, Zacatecas, Mexico
Veins - sperrylite - Pt As --- #81 --- Sperrylite, Sudbury, Ontario
Veins - tin-tungsten ore - Fe Mn W Sn --- #152 --- Quartz-wolframite vein (tin-tungsten ore) in greisen, Cligga Head, Cornwall, England
Veins - zinc and lead - Pb Zn --- #48 --- Zinc-lead vein from the Grenville province of S.E. Ontario
Veins - zinc-rich polymetallic - Zn --- #148 --- Silica-flooded sulphidic ore, Mineral de Pozos, Guanajuato, Mexico
Vertebrate fossils --- ---- --- See "fossils" section
Violarite - Ni --- #5 ---- Violarite, nickel ore from Sudbury, Ontario
Volcanics --- #62 --- Mineralized andesite, Guanajuato, Mexico
Volcanics --- #108 --- Basaltic volcanic bomb, Mount Fuji, Japan
Volcanics --- #114 --- Peperite identified in outcrop in Tigrai, Ethiopia
Volcanics --- #130 --- Basalt, Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia
Volcanics --- #141 --- Fossiliferous basalt (no, really!) from Iceland
Volcanics --- #147 --- Andesite lava from Poas volcano, at Bosque de Paz, Costa Rica
Volcanics --- #160 --- Porphyry (volcanic tuff), ornamental stone, Dyfed, Wales
Volcanics - xenolithic basalt --- #155 --- Dunitic mantle xenolith from Mount Leura, western Victoria, Australia
Volcanics - xenolithic basalt --- #217 --- Peridotite mantle xenoliths in basalt, North China craton, Hebei, China
Volcanic-like impact ejecta --- #159 --- Lapilli tuff / cherty sediment of Sudbury impact event, central Ontario
Volcanic-like impact ejecta --- #213 --- Impact ejecta, Thunder Bay, Ontario
Volynskite - Bi Ag Te --- #67 --- Rucklidgeite, rare telluride, N.E. Ontario
Wavellite --- #199 --- Wavellite from north Devon, England
Weissbergite - Tl --- #19 --- Thallium in nature (Utah, U.S.A.)
Widmanstatten pattern in iron meteorites --- #86 --- Gibeon iron meteorite, Namibia
Willemite - Zn --- #198 --- Zn silicate in fluorescent zinc ore, New Jersey, U.S.A.
Wolframite - Fe Mn W --- #152 --- Quartz-wolframite vein (tin-tungsten ore) in greisen, Cligga Head, Cornwall, England
Xenoliths --- #155 --- Dunitic mantle xenolith from Mount Leura, western Victoria, Australia
Xenoliths --- #217 --- Peridotite mantle xenoliths in basalt, North China craton, Hebei, China
Xifengite - Fe Si (no specific illustration) --- #44 --- Silicides in fulgurite and ferrosilicon
Yakutite - C --- #26 --- Diamond and carbonado, Siberia & Africa
Zebra ore / zebra rock --- #175 --- "Zebra rock", a lead-zinc-silver ore from Colorado, U.S.A.
Zeolites --- #142 --- Zeolites and apophyllite from Pune (Poona), Maharashtra, India
Zinc - Zn --- ---- --- See "sulphides" (Zn), "smithsonite", "franklinite", "willemite"

The provenance of the first 230 rocks of the month is approximately as follows: Wilson/Turnstone collection 176 (77%);
museums and assorted private individual and corporate collections 40 (17%);
and outcrops, building stones and decorative stones, in situ 14 (6%).
The in-house suite (77% of total) shown on these pages was - variously and approximately - self-collected (35%), purchased (35%) or donated (7%).

Document prepared 15-16,24-30 November 2014, last modified 31 July 2020 (756 line items from 230 ROM: 3.29 lines per article)


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