METEORITES OF INDIA
The following material is presented as an example of the detailed
information in MINLIB. India, a large country representing some 2.2%
of the world's land area, has to date yielded an estimated 140 known
meteorites (total revised up from 134 in April 2006)
This presentation contains the following three MINLIB extracts;
(1) A double-record citation with keywords, describing in
detail the content of a new meteorite catalogue, plus
(2) Two simpler, more-typical records, representing an abstract on the
history of research on Indian meteorites, and a short article including the Sabrum (1999) fall,
(3) A short bibliography of relevant books and articles, in citation
format, including the above-mentioned items plus other meteorite
catalogues and lists. Note that logical fields, used to retrieve this
short bibliography, are omitted here to save space. Affiliation data,
such as the contact address provided for the following item, do NOT
however constitute a distinct field in MINLIB.
Compilation updated on 09 April 2012!
A subject can be viewed from many angles.
The most convenient way of generating a table of meteorites
found in a given country is now to visit the USGS-hosted
database of the Meteoritical Bulletin, a recent development
which still (2006, and even now, 2012) seems rather magical!
This has the advantages of being multi-layered and also the
official world repository of meteorite occurrence and
nomenclature. As of 07 April 2006, the Met.Bull. tabulated
140 names for India. These included 129 accepted meteorites, 4
undocumented records, 6 dubious records (globally, these
can be misidentified "pseudometeorites" and misplaced
fireball events) and one impact structure (the Lonar crater).
By 09 April 2012, Met.Bull.'s coverage had expanded by eight records,
including 7 new meteorites and one newly-recognized impact structure.
MINLIB includes 1 or more records to virtually all these meteorites,
a reflection of the attention paid to the Indian Subcontinent
in the database. Its emphasis on bibliographic research
offers a convenient window into work already published
on many of the more intensively-studied examples.
Note (see below) that three of the catalogued meteorites and the Didwana
find are not as yet recognized by Met.Bull., those the discrepancy
between 136 meteorites recognized officially,
and 140 named herein.
For completeness, MINLIB notes the famous, geologically youthful Lonar crater,
the Paleoproterozoic Dhala structure in Madhya Pradesh, and four other postulated
impact structures in or adjacent to India. The "candidate" structures
put forward in the recent
geological literature are
the large Shiva structure on the western continental shelf off Mumbai,
Ramgarh in Rajasthan, Luna in Gujarat, and Majhgawan,
a kimberlite in Madhya Pradesh.
References, 1. Important Publication on Indian Meteorites
Ghosh,S and Dube,A
A meteorite catalogue for India - the Geol.Surv.India museum in Calcutta
has a collection of 686 meteorites - the book provides 249 monochrome
pictures of 100 Indian meteorites, with a list of recent examples, as of
01 January 1996 - the 100 meteorites include 84 chondrites, 10
achondrites and six iron meteorites - physical properties and other
characteristics (book critique - J.Geol.Soc. India 54, 665, December
1999) - the book was received in May 2001 and contains many valuable
images of meteorite surface textures, including the morphology of fusion
crusts - when first received it had a strong ammoniacal smell,
presumably related to the printing process - notes on museum
curation and loan of materials for research (pp.iii-iv) - with addenda to
the latest complete catalogue of the G.S.I. meteorite collection, as of 01
January 1996 (pp.2-4, 15) - each chosen meteorite in the present
publication is described in some detail, with data on such topics as
location, dates of fall or find, mass, specific gravity, degree of
weathering, degree of fracturing, flight history, classification (class and
other data such as Fa content of olivine and total Fe in assay),
worldwide museum holdings - the 100 meteorites are as follows -
Pictorial Catalogue on One Hundred Indian Meteorites.
Geol.Surv.India Catalogue 3, 310pp. (1999).
the first 40 chondrites, in alphabetical order, are as follows: Akbarpur,
Ambapur Nagla, Andura, Ankhediya Mota [L4-5 fall, 02 September
1985, in Gujarat - 20.046 kg including 17 kg main mass, pp.22-23 - not
in the standard world meteorite catalogue of Grady, 2000 ] and Assam
- Atarra, Bansur, Banswal, Baroti and Benares-I [LL4, alias Benares (a)]
- Benares-II [not the iron Benares (b) noted in "Grady", but a 50.66-g
fragment of a veined H6, pp.40-41], Bhagur, Bherai, Bishunpur (LL3,
pp.46-49) and Bori - Butsura (veined H6, pp.52-55 with what appears
to be a protruding metal vein on one face), Chainpur (LL3, pp.56-59),
Chandpur, Chandakapur and Charwallas - Cranganore, Dandapur, Delhi,
Desuri and Dhurmsala [listed in Punjab - actually in adjacent Himachal
Pradesh] - Donga Kohrod, Durala, Ekh Khera, Erakot and Futtehpur -
Gujargaon, Haripura, Jamkheir, Jemlapur (L5, exact location in India not
known), Judesegeri - Kadonah, Kaee, Kakangari, Kamalpur, Kamsagar -
the other 44 chondrites are as follows: Kangra Valley, Khanpur
(pp.124-129), Kheragur, Kheri Maham [veined L5, a fall of 07 May
1986, total 73.495 kg, pp.132-141 - not in Grady, 2000] and Khetri -
Kusiali, Kuttippuram, Lalitpur, Lua and Manbhoom - Meerut, Mhow,
Mirzapur, Moradabad and Moti-ka-nagla - Muddoor, Nammianthal, Naoki,
Nawapali and Parnallee - Pirthalla, Pokhra, Pulsora, Ramnagar and
Rampurhat - Ranchapur, Rangala, Rewari, Sabetmahet and Sarratola -
Segowlie, Semarkona (famous LL3 fall in Bihar, 1940), Shikarpur,
Shupiyan and Sitathali (H5 with dimpled fusion crust, actually as many
as three generations of fusion crust formed on progressively
disintegrating mass during fall, pp.244-247) - Sultanpur, Supuhee,
Tirupati, Udaipur and Udipi - Umbala, Valdavur, Vishnupur, Yatoor -
the ten achondrites are as follows: Bholgati (howardite),
Dyalpur (ureilite), Goalpur [Goalpara] (ureilite)
and Haraiya (eucrite) - Lakangaon
(eucrite), Manegaon (diogenite), Nagaria (eucrite),
Shalka (diogenite) and
Shergotty (shergottite, SNC fall in 1865) -
the six irons are as follows: Bahjoi, Kodaikanal, Muzaffarpur (IRANOM
with 12.9% Ni, fall in Bihar, 1964), Nedagolla, Raghunathpur [or
Raghunathpura, a 1986 fall in Alwar district, Rajasthan] and Samelia
(except where noted, all entries are also in the latest worldwide
meteorite catalogue, with names exactly as listed - see Grady, 2000 - seven
minor discrepancies, clarifications or apparently new meteorites in the
GSI work are noted in square brackets in the 2 MINLIB records - the 100
meteorites illustrated in the GSI catalogue are a very creditable selection
of the total of known Indian meteorites, listed as 123 in Grady - note
that three of the illustrated falls, `Benares-II'
which is an undated fall in
Uttar Pradesh, Ankhediya Mota which fell in Gujarat in 1985
and Kheri Maham which fell in Haryana in 1986,
are not listed in Grady - GCW).
For completeness' sake, here are the names of 26 other Indian meteorites,
listed in Grady (2000);
Andhara, Benares (b), Chail, Chetrinahatti, Dhajala, Dharwar,
Gurram Konda, Jalandhar, Kalumbi, Khohar, Lahrauli,
Lohawat, Madhipura, Merua, Myhee Caunta, Nainital,
Parsa, Patora, Piplia Kalan, Phulmari,
Punganaru, Seoni, Singhur, Soheria, Tonk and Vissannapeta.
The latest meteorites of which news has reached me are listed below: 8 by 2006,
and six more recent examples. Note that the 13 most recent meteorites
in this list are ALL witnessed falls,
which speaks to the populous nature of much of the country,
and evidently to a rapid response to meteorite recovery.
These meteorites are all referred to in the annotated references in sections 2 and 3.
- Didwana-Rajod (H5) - aka Didwana, undocumented find, Rajasthan, 1991
- Devri-Khera (L6) - fall, Rajasthan, 1994
- Sabrum (LL6) - fall, Tripura, 1999
- Itawa Bhopji (L3-L5 regolith breccia) - undocumented fall, Rajasthan, 2000
- Devgaon (H3) - fall, Chattisgarh, 2001
- Dergaon (H5) - fall, Assam, 2001
- Bhawad (LL6) - fall, Rajasthan, 2002
- Kendrapara (H5) - fall, Orissa, 2003
- Kasauli (H4) - fall, Uttar Pradesh, 2003
- Kaprada (L5-6) - fall, Gujarat, 2004
- Kavarpura (IIE-anom iron) - fall, Rajasthan, 2006
- Jodiya (L5) - fall, Gujarat, 2006
- Mahadevpur (H4-H5) - fall, Arunachal Pradesh, 2007
- Sulagiri (LL6) - fall, Tamil Nadu, 2008
N.B. In addition to Didwana and Itawa Bhopji, the "undocumented" category
in Met.Bull. still (09 April 2012)
includes Ankhediya Mota and Kheri Maham (1986).
Note: this publication is or was available from:
Geological Survey of India,
Publication & Information Division,
29 Jawaharlal Nehru Road,
West Bengal 700 016
Original price Rs 240 (India) / 9.00 pounds / US$14.00.
References, 2. Context: Research on Indian Meteorites
The study of Indian meteorites - history of science - discovery of new
mineral species in Indian meteorites, some (such as oldhamite and
osbornite in Bustee) named for officers of the Geological Survey of India
- maskelynite in the Shergotty SNC achondrite - iron meteorites are
strangely scarce in India, considering the scientifically significant
chondrites and achondrites recovered from the subcontinent - 124
meteorites are known from India, 15 from Pakistan and 8 from
Bangladesh - growth of the Indian national meteorite collection.
Meteorites in the Indian subcontinent: a historical perspective.
Meteoritics & Planetary Science 35, A118 (2000).
Classification of 14 meteorites - petrologic grade and shock state of 14
chondrites from India - 5 H-chondrites: Judesegeri, Donga Kohrod, Tirupati,
Shupiyan and Ranchapur - 5 L-chondrites: Sarratola, Mhow, Kheragur, Lalitpur
and Muddoor - 4 LL-chondrites: Semarkona, Bishunpur, Rampurhat and Parnallee -
petrography - plus notes on two new falls - Vissannapeta (fall in Andhra
Pradesh, 13 December 1997, cumulate eucrite achondrite) and
Sabrum (fall in
Tripura on 30 April 1999, LL6 / S4 - a 678-g piece was recovered, with olivine
of Fa30.5, orthopyroxene of Fs22.2
and minor clinopyroxene and secondary plagioclase feldspar - approximately the
127th known Indian meteorite - GCW).
Estimation of equilibration temperature of major chondrite groups
at different stages of thermal metamorphism through the studies of mineral chemistry.
Geol.Surv.India Records 133 part 2, 12-13 (1999).
References, 3a. Catalogues and Reviews
GRADY,MM (2000) Catalogue of Meteorites. Natural History
Museum, London / Cambridge University Press, 5th edition, 690pp.
NEHRU,CE (2000) Meteorites in the Indian subcontinent: a historical
perspective. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 35, A118.
GHOSH,S (1999) Estimation of equilibration temperature of major chondrite
groups at different stages of thermal metamorphism through the studies of
mineral chemistry. Geol.Surv.India Records 133 part 2, 12-13.
GHOSH,S and BHATTACHARYA,AK (1999) Petrography, bulk chemistry,
shock metamorphism and selected mineral phase compositions of
Indian chondrites and achondrites. Geol.Surv.India Records 131
part 2, 24-25 (notes on the classification of 12 meteorites).
GHOSH,S and DUBE,A (1999) Pictorial Catalogue on One Hundred
Indian Meteorites. Geol.Surv.India Catalogue No. 3, 310pp.
GHOSH,S and SEN,DK (1999) Petrography, bulk chemistry, shock
metamorphism and selected mineral compositions of Indian
chondrites and achondrites. Geol.Surv.India Records 132 part 2, 4
(notes on the classification of another 12 meteorites).
SEN GUPTA,PR (1986) Petrographic inventory of fifty five Indian meteorites.
Indian Minerals 40 no.3, 40-51.
NAG,DK (1984) A revised bibliography on meteorites of Indian sub-continent.
Indian Minerals 38 no.2, 46-57.
SEN GUPTA,PR and SEN GUPTA,S (1982) Catalogue of the Meteorite
Collection of the Geological Survey of India in the Indian Museum,
Calcutta. Geol.Surv.India Catalogue Series 1, 101pp.
MURTHY,VN, SRIVASTAVA,SNP and DUBE,A (1968) Indian
meteorites. Geol.Surv.India Memoir 99, 172pp. plus 30 plates.
COULSON,AL (1940) A Catalogue of Meteorites: with Special
Reference to Indian Falls and Finds and to Specimens in the Indian
Museum, Calcutta, as on August 1st, 1939. Geol.Surv.India Memoir 75,
346pp. plus 6 plates.
SILBERRAD,CA (1932) List of Indian meteorites. Mineral.Mag. 23,
References, 3b. Some More-recent Records on Indian Meteorites [updated April 2012]
BHANDARI,N, MURTY,SVS, SHUKLA,PN, SHUKLA,AD, MAHAJAN,RR, SARIN,MM,
SRINIVASAN,G, SUTHAR,KM, SISODIA,MS, JHA,S and BISCHOFF,A (2002)
Itawa Bhopji (L3-5) chondrite regolith breccia: fall,
classification, and cosmogenic records. Meteoritics & Planetary
Science 37, 549-563 [Itawa Bhopji (L3-5)].
BHANDARI,N, MURTY,SVS, SHUKLA,PN, MAHAJAN,RR, SHUKLA,AD,
SUTHAR,KM, PARTHASARATHY,G and PALIWAL,BS (2005)
Bhawad LL6 chondrite: chemistry, petrology, noble gases,
nuclear tracks, and cosmogenic radionuclides.
Meteoritics & Planetary Science 40, 1015-1021
(the Bhawad LL6 ordinary chondrite fall in
Jodhpur district, Rajasthan, on 06 June 2002, yielded a
small, 678 g mass with complete fusion crust - detailed
study: see also short erratum, MAPS 41, p.1833, 2006).
DHINGRA,D, BHANDARI,N, SHUKLA,PN, MURTY,SVS,
MAHAJAN,RR, BALLABH,GM, LASHKARI,G, SHUKLA,AD
and PARTHASARATHY,G (2004)
Spectacular fall of the Kendrapara H5 chondrite.
Meteoritics & Planetary Science 39, A121-132 (a fireball and
in coastal Orissa, on 27 September 2003).
GHOSH,S and CHATTOPADHYAY,B (2001)
Estimation of metamorphic temperature in chondrites.
Geol.Surv.India Records 134 part 2, 15 (study of nine Indian
stones: Bori - Pirthalla - Ekh Khera - Pokhra - Nammianthal -
Chandpur - Dandapur - Seoni - Ramnagar).
GHOSH,S, BANDYOPADHYAY,TK, PANT,NC, SHOME,S, SEN,DK and RAJAWAT,RS
(2001) Devri-Khera: a new L6 chondrite. Meteoritics & Planetary
Science 36 no.9, A241-245 [Devri-Khera L6
GHOSH,S, MURTY,SVS, SHUKLA,PN, SHUKLA,AD, MAHAJAN,RR, BHANDARI,N,
PANT,NC, GHOSH,JB and SHOME,S (2002) Fall, classification and
cosmogenic records of the Sabrum (LL6) chondrite. Meteoritics &
Planetary Science 37, 439-448 [Sabrum LL6 chondrite].
GROSSMAN,JN and ZIPFEL,J (2001) The Meteoritical Bulletin,
No.85, 2001 September. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 36 no.9,
A293-322 [Dergaon H5 chondrite (Assam, northeast India,
fall, 02 March 2001, 12.5 kg) and the fall dates of the
Devri-Khera and Lohawat meteorites, which (p.A295) both fell in
Rajasthan on the night of 30 October 1994, separated by several
hours and about 500 km].
MOHANTY,M and SAHOO,KC (2004)
Meteoritic shower in Orissa.
J.Geol.Soc.India 63, 231 (Kendrapara: nominal mass at least
MURTY,SVS, RAI,VK, SHUKLA,AD, SRINIVASAN,G,
BHANDARI,N and BISCHOFF,A (2004)
Devgaon (H3) chondrite: classification and complex
cosmic ray exposure history. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 39,
387-399 (the Devgaon meteorite fall in Bastar district
[Chattisgarh, eastern Madhya Pradesh] on 12 February 2001 - a
notable H3 ordinary chondrite with some silica-rich bodies and
CAI - olivines are quite equilibrated
[Fa17-19] but pyroxenes are
MURTY,SVS, MAHAJAN,RR, SHUKLA,AD, MAZUMDAR,AC, SHUKLA,PN,
DURGA PRASAD,K, RAI,VK, PANDA,D, GHEVARIA,ZG and
Jodia (L5) and Mahadevpur (H4/5): two recent ordinary
chondrite falls in India.
Meteoritics & Planetary Science 44, A150
(the Jodia [Jodiya] shower of 31 July 2006 (L5
in Gujarat, and the Mahadevpur fall near the border
of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh on 21 February 2007 (H4-5
MURTY,SVS, CHATTOPADHYAY,B, GOEL,S, MAHAJAN,RR, SHUKLA,PN,
DURGA PRASAD,K, SHUKLA,AD, KRISHNAN,V, NAGARAJAN,K,
GHOSH,JB, MONDAL,PK and GOSWAMI,JN (2009)
Sulagiri, the largest meteorite fall in India.
Meteoritics & Planetary Science 44, A151
(the Sulagiri meteorite fall of 12 September
2008 - seven pieces were recovered, 110 kg in all, making
Sulagiri the largest recovered fall so far in India - the
largest fragment, 50 kg, made a 1.5-m crater upon striking
a main road - chondrite, classified as LL6 (S2)).
MURTY,SVS, MAHAJAN,RR, CHATTOPADHYAY,B and SHUKLA,AD
Cosmic ray effects in Devri-Khera (L6) and
Lohawat (how): two meteorites that fell in close
proximity, in space and time. Meteoritics & Planetary
Science 45, A144
(cosmogenic radionuclides in two meteorite falls in
Rajasthan, namely Devri-Khera (L6) and Lohawat (howardite)
which both fell on the evening of 30 October 1994, the
latter some 2 hours 45 minutes after the former, and about
100 km away from the earlier fall).
PALIWAL,BS, MAHAJAN,RR, MURTY,SVS, SHUKLA,AD, SHUKLA,PN,
BHANDARI,N, NATARAJAN,R, HUTCHISON,R, RUSSELL,S and FRANCHI,IA
(2001) Chemical and isotopic characteristics of the
Didwana-Rajod (H5) chondrite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 36,
1249-1256 [Didwana-Rajod H5 chondrite].
PALIWAL,BS, SISODIA,MS and TRIPATHI,RP (2002)
Bhawad L(LL)6 chondrite: petrography and Mossbauer study.
Current Science 83 no.9, 1071-1072, 10 November
(fall at Bhawad village in Rajasthan on 06 June
2002 - India - location map of six falls in the state,
1991-2002 - fall phenomena - the single stone weighed
678.1 g, with a fusion crust 1-2 mm thick - an LL6 or L6
RUSSELL,SS, ZOLENSKY,M, RIGHTER,K, FOLCO,L, JONES,R,
CONNOLLY,HC, GRADY,MM and GROSSMAN,JN (2005)
The Meteoritical Bulletin, No.89, 2005 September.
Meteoritics & Planetary Science 40, A201-263
(the Kasauli fall in Uttar Pradesh, 02 November
2003, a 16.82 kg H4 - p.209).
SHUKLA,PN, SHUKLA,AD, RAI,VK, MURTY,SVS, BHANDARI,N,
GOSWAMI,JN, MAZUMDAR,AC, PHUKON,P, DUORAH,K, GREENWOOD,RE
and FRANCHI,IA (2005)
The Dergaon (H5) chondrite: fall, classification,
petrological and chemical characteristics, cosmogenic
effects, and noble gas records.
Meteoritics & Planetary Science 40, 627-637
(the Dergaon H5 chondrite - meteorite fall in
eastern Assam, at 16:40 hours local time, 02 March 2001 -
the strewnfield extends over several tens of km2 and
several fragments were recovered, including one weighing
VERMA,HC, JEE,K and TRIPATHI,RP (2003)
Systematics of Mossbauer absorption areas in ordinary chondrites
and applications to a newly fallen meteorite in Jodhpur, India.
Meteoritics & Planetary Science 38, 963-967 (on 06 June
2002: a fall occurred at Bhawad village near Jodhpur
in Rajasthan: a single stone of 670 g, classified by Mossbauer
spectra as an LL chondrite - probably an LL6).
WEISBERG,MK, SMITH,C, BENEDIX,G, FOLCO,L, RIGHTER,K,
ZIPFEL,J, YAMAGUCHI,A and CHENNAOUI AOUDJEHANE,H (2008)
The Meteoritical Bulletin, No.94, September 2008.
Meteoritics & Planetary Science 43, 1551-1588
(four new meteorites from India: Jodiya L5 from
Gujarat; Kaprada L5/L6 from Gujarat;
Kavarpura IIE-anom iron meteorite; and
Mahadevpur H4/H5 from Arunachal Pradesh).
WEISBERG,MK, SMITH,C, BENEDIX,G, HERD,CDK, RIGHTER,K,
HAACK,H, YAMAGUCHI,A, CHENNAOUI AOUDJEHANE,H and
The Meteoritical Bulletin, No.96, September 2009.
Meteoritics & Planetary Science 44, 1355-1397
(including the Sulagiri LL6 fall in Tamil Nadu on
12 September 2008.
16 June 2001 / 31 May 2002 / 13 June 2005 / 07 April 2006 / 09-10 April 2012
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